Monday, May 25, 2020

Breaking Away From Society A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen...

Modern interpretations of â€Å"A Doll’s House† and â€Å"Trifles† portray that these dramas are solely works of feminism, when in fact they address a more important issue of the time: marriage ideals. During this time, marriages were nothing but a masquerade. Husbands and wives hid behind their commitment, and were overly focused on the appearances and opinions of society. Society played a key role in the formation of the attitudes and opinions of marriage in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. â€Å"A Doll’s House† by Ibsen was written in 1879 and focuses on the problems within the traditional marriage of the time. â€Å"Trifles† was written several years later in 1916 by Susan Glaspell and was also a story that brought the issues with marriage ideals to the†¦show more content†¦Their marriage is strained mostly because of Torvald’s inability to see the wrong in society. Torvald treats Nora as if she were a young child. He patronizes her by calling her nicknames such as, â€Å"Little Miss Sweet Tooth†, â€Å"little pigheaded miss†, and â€Å"my little featherbrain†. (Ibsen 1602, 1599, 1625). While some may argue that Torvald’s patronizing and demeaning attitude is the sole cause of the deterioration of their marriage, the real reason behind the fall out is a collection of much deeper issues. From early on in the story we can tell that there are more problems with their marriage than Nora leads on. When Nora sees her old friend Mrs. Linde, she acts as if her life is going perfectly as planned. Nora brags about her husband exclaiming, â€Å"Just imagine, my husband’s been appointed manager of the bank!† (Ibsen 2604). Nora only reveals the positive parts of her marriage and keeps her hardships and struggles locked away. Later on in the story it becomes very apparent that in the late 1800’s, secrecy was a key part of matrimony. Nora went to extr eme lengths to keep secrets from not only her husband, but from herself; she acted completely oblivious to the demeaning attitude that Torvald emitted towards her. The couple also faced problems with honesty. Nora felt that she could not trust Torvald; hence why she kept the forged signature a secret from him. Torvald, himself, also was not completely honestShow MoreRelatedRebellion Against Society in Ibsens A Dolls House Essay677 Words   |  3 PagesRebellion Against Society in A Dolls House      Ã‚  Ã‚  An underlying theme in A Dolls House, by Henrik Ibsen, is the rebellion against social expectations to follow what one believes in their heart. This theme is demonstrated as several of the plays characters break away from the social norms of their time and act on their own beliefs. No one character demonstrates this better than Nora.   Nora rebels against social expectations, first by breaking the law, and later by taking the drastic step ofRead MoreEssay on Themes and Symbols in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House1296 Words   |  6 PagesPapa’a doll-child† (Ibsen 1491). Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll House tells a story of scandal and deceit set in the Victorian era. Nora Helmer is married to Torvald Helmer and she feels more like his toy than his wife. Nora had to have Torvald to be able to do anything, because of when she lived. Nora borrows money behind her husband’s back (which is illegal at this time) and tries to cover up everything sh e has done. Ibsen employs the use of many themes and symbols in his A Doll House to show the readerRead MoreParallels between A Doll’s House and The Awakening Essay918 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout history, society often places women inferior to men, causing women to be predisposed to obeying their husband without a second thought. However, when a woman begins to question the idea of loyalty and obedience, her eyes are often opened to the mold that she is encased in and becomes determined to break through and develop her self-potential. In Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House and Kate Chopin’s The Awakening, the main female character is put through a revelation that changes her life foreverRead MoreThe American author Napoleon Hill once stated â€Å"think twice before you speak, because your words and800 Words   |  4 Pagesonce stated â€Å"think twice before you speak, because your words and influence will plant the seed of either success or failure in the mind of another.† In Henrick Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House, the character of Mrs. Linde contributes to the exposition and pivotal moment when she encourages Krogstad not to retrieve his letter from Torvald Helmer’s mailbox, she also has a profound influence on the character development of Nora Helmer. Mrs. Linde directly contributes to Nora’s moment of realization and Nora’sRead More Tragic Heroes in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman and Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House1709 Words   |  7 PagesArthur Millers Death of a Salesman and Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House Dramatists such as Aristotle started to write a series of plays called tragedies. They were as follows: the play revolved around a great man such as a king or war hero, who possessed a tragic flaw. This flaw or discrepancy would eventually become his downfall. These types of plays are still written today, for example, Arthur Millers Death of Salesman and Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House. Death of Salesman shows the downfallRead MoreHenrik Ibsen s A Dollhouse1460 Words   |  6 PagesHenrik Ibsen’s A Dollhouse A Dollhouse is Henrik Ibsen’s best known realistic problem play. It is about the debt a wife hides from her husband, and the escalation of problems surrounding it occurring around Christmas. The play shocked many viewers because it broke many cultural stigmas at the time. The names, symbols, and dialogue all contribute to the overall impact of the play. According to the article, Henrik Ibsen Biography, Ibsen was a playwright born in Skien, Norway as the oldest of five siblingsRead MoreAnalysis of the Character of Mrs. Linde in A Dolls House1084 Words   |  5 PagesThe American author Napoleon Hill once stated â€Å"think twice before you speak, because your words and influence will plant the seed of either success or failure in the mind of another.† In Henrick Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House, the character of Mrs. Linde contributes to the exposition and pivotal moment of the decideding factors of Krogstad, she also has a profound influence on the character development of Nora Helmer. Mrs. Linde directly contributes to Nora’s moment of realization and Nora’s decisionRead MoreThe Transformation of a Woman - Ibsens a Dolls House1437 Words   |  6 PagesThe Transformation of a Woman In Henrik Ibsen’s play, A Doll’s House, the character of Nora Helmer is a woman who undergoes a profound life revelation that results in her becoming a woman with a belief structure and understanding of self that is far ahead of her time. At the beginning of the play, Nora thinks as a woman of her era; her identity is formed as her father’s daughter and continued as a wife to Torvald Helmer. At the end of the play Nora â€Å"discovers her individuality then walksRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen2768 Words   |  12 Pagesthough many may argue that men have an abuse of power in modern times, women have far more rights in government and society’s standings than they once had . A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen sheds light on the typical role of women in 1870’s Norway, showing how women were treated then: almost as objects with no real important place in society. This gives modern readers a clear view of how many more opportunities that women have nowadays. This essay will combat the derogatory view of women that manyRead MoreA Doll s House : Dolls2775 Words   |  12 Pages A Doll’s House: Dolls in Real Life Introduction Today, the accepted roles of both women and men judged by society’s expectations is an extremely controversial topic. Feminism is a battle that many women are fighting, because even though today’s women can be and accomplish almost anything, men often play the more superior role in many relationships. The role of women has been viewed differently throughout different points in history and in different areas. However, many people don t realize that

Friday, May 15, 2020

Causes of the American Civil War Essay - 1118 Words

For generations students have been taught an over-simplified version of the civil war and even now I am just coming to a full understanding of the truth. The civil war was a terrible rift in our nation, fought between the northern states (known as the union) and the southern states (the Confederate States of America). The people’s opinions were so divided over the issues of the civil war that, in some families, brother was pit against brother. Eventually, the south succumbed to the north and surrendered on April 9th, 1865 but not before the war had caused 618,000 deaths, more than any other war in U.S. history.(1) In truth, many believe this horrible war was fought purely over the issue of slavery. Nothing could be further from the†¦show more content†¦The answer can yet again be found in the climate. The north’s climate was not optimal for growing crops on a large scale, it was much too cold. Another factor was the soil, which in many areas was very rocky a nd inhospitable to crops. The north, lacking the south’s ease at growing cash crops, turned to industry and the growth of large cities.(2-616) The average person could get a job working at a factory, thus slave labor was not necessary.(3) The north could look at the south and condemn them for using slaves because slaves were not necessary to the north’s economy. The gap between the northern and the southern United States kept widening as the north advanced the industry based society with larger cities, and the south, refusing to modernize, became increasingly more reliant on their farms. Also, abolition movements supporting the ending of slavery, particularly by the Unitarian Church of Boston led by Theodore Parker were gaining momentum and drawing supporters to their cause.(4) Social and economic division as a major cause of the civil war really goes hand-in-hand with slavery. In fact, nearly every issue, while not directly about slavery, has at least a remote connection to slavery. The south couldn’t support their economy without the cheap labor provided by slaves. The economically independent north labeled slavery as immoral. The emancipation proclamation, which was issued September 22, 1862 outlawed slavery in Confederate states that would not returnShow MoreRelatedCauses Of The American Civil War760 Words   |  4 PagesThe Civil War was one of the most momentous and pivotal periods in U.S history. After decades of tension between the North and South over matters involving expansion, slavery, and the states rights these caused the beginning of a horrific devastating time known as the American Civil War, that lasted between 1861-1865. Within these 4 long barbaric and destructive years, it led to an innumerous amount of political, social, and economical changes for the U.S. Leaving 2.4 million dead and millionsRead MoreCause Of The American Civil War1403 Words   |  6 Pagesdebates on the causes of the American Civil War. Many have stated that slavery was the primary cause for the Civil War. Some historians have argued that there were other causes of the Civil War. The one thing that all historians agreed upon was the division between the North (known as the Union) and the South (known as the Confederacy) that escalated on the soil of the United States of America (In Stampp, 1965). The battle between the two states is what created the â€Å"American Civil War.† The AmericanRead MoreCauses of the American Civil War2672 Words   |  11 Pagesï » ¿ The American Civil War: Causes, Victor, and Validity Keagan Koerber History 205 Professor Childress December 9, 2014 The slightest mention of the American Civil War is enough to bring graphic and often horrifying images into one’s head: mountains of dead soldiers, amputations without anesthesia, and diseases running rampant. The Civil War was a war that no one wished for, it resulted in the deaths of several hundred thousand American lives, but it is often justified by itsRead MoreCauses Of The American Civil War1769 Words   |  8 PagesThe American Civil War was one of the most tragic events in American history. The American Civil War began on April 12, 1861 and ended on May 9, 1865. It was a bloody war between states. Hundreds of thousands of men died in the American Civil war. The war was fought between brothers and friends on each side. The issue of slavery was dividing the nation apart and it was a fight to death. The Confederate States of America seceded because they wanted slavery to continue and believed that they did notRead MoreThe Causes Of The American Civil War Essay2218 Words   |  9 PagesDay One: Grades: Elementary grade level 5th-6th Goal: Students will be able to identify the causes of the American Civil War. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to compare the cultures and economies of the Northern and Southern states. 2. Students will be able to summarize the main points of the Missouri Compromise, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Declaration of Causes of the Seceding States. 3. Students will be able to discuss the actions of John Brown at Harpers Ferry and the reaction ofRead MoreThe Main Cause Of The American Civil War1047 Words   |  5 Pagesone main cause of the American Civil war must be resolved, and while there are many ideas, history reveals that there was only one. There are many arguable motives to the start of the Civil War, but there are four main concepts. These four concepts were slavery, taxation, the election of Abraham Lincoln and lastly, struggling with power between the Northern and Southern states. To start with, the end of slavery is undoubtedly one of the most popular arguments to the creation of the Civil War. WhileRead MoreThe Ultimate Causes Of The American Civil War941 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Civil War was a war fought within the United States of America between the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy) The war was one of the most critical events in American history. â€Å"It is estimated that 623,000 soldiers died during the Civil War†(Garrison) starting from 1861 and ending in 1865. While many still debate the ultimate causes of the Civil War, author James McPherson writes that, The Civil War started because of uncompromising differences between the free and slave statesRead MoreCauses of the American Civil War Essay1181 Words   |  5 PagesThe Civil War was caused by a myriad of conflicting pressures, principles, and prejudices, fueled by sectional differences and pride, and set into motion by a most unlikely set of political events. From the co lonial period in America where the institution of slavery began, through the period of the revolution whereby blood was shed to validate the notion that all men were created equal (yet slavery existed in all thirteen colonies), to the era of the Civil War itself, it is undoubtedly clear thatRead MoreEssay on Cause of the American Civil War1732 Words   |  7 Pages The cause of the American Civil War has been a politicized subject for the past 152 years. There are many different theories for what the main cause is, however the best answer is an all of the above approach. The cause of the war that divided the nation cannot be narrowly defined into a single issue but each cause is affected and tied together. The main causes that resulted in the Civil War were the issue of nullification, tariffs, but most importantly just an overall difference in their waysRead MoreMajor Cause Of The American Civil War1224 Words   |  5 PagesMAJOR CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR I. Introduction to Civil War The American Civil War was a war within the United States of America fought by the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy) starting from 1861 and ending in 1865. This war was one of the most devastating events in American history, consuming more than 600,000 lives. It was thought to be one that molded the character of the American individual today. This war was seen as a War for Southern Independence or War of Rebellion for the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Jamestown and Plymouth Essay - 564 Words

The English had two main colonies in the new world, Jamestown and Plymouth. The first colony was Jamestown, established in Virginia in 1607. Jamestown was settled by Captain John Smith, and was named after King James I. Tobacco was the main export of Jamestown, and became the basis of the Jamestown economy, sending more than 50,000 lbs of the plan back to Europe by 1618 (textbook 46). Jamestown had a very rocky start, many colonists dying in the first few years of the settlement, and the settlers had many problems with natives. Shortly after the arrival of English colonists the Natives attacked them, and were finally forced back by a canon from the English. A very uneasy truce was finally settled between the natives, called the Powhatans,†¦show more content†¦The Salem Witch trials, of Salem Massachusetts are known for their hypocrisy and unfair rulings. The trials were the main conflict in the Plymouth colony, causing a scare between the colonists, making them fear each oth er. Plymouth was set in stone in their ways, and if there was any one doing something different they were persecuted because they didn’t belong. The citizens concerned themselves more with others than with the individual growth of themselves. The Jamestown Colony was founded for economic wealth, in comparison to the Plymouth colony, which was settled for religious freedom. Jamestown seemed to work as a single entity, expanding their tobacco trade and growing the economy. The self-interested colonists of Jamestown wanted land and money, which they were promised if they worked hard in the tobacco industry. Many people who came from England were indentured servants, promised food and sheltered during their seven years of work and a plot of 50 acres after their service. By working for the better of themselves it strengthened the work ethic of the Jamestown colonists. On the flip side, the Puritans were greedy, but did not wish to work, which we can see in the story â€Å"The Cru cible† written by Arthur Miller. The Puritans killed off their neighbors by accusing them of witchcraft, and once executed theirShow MoreRelatedCompare And Contrast Jamestown And Plymouth Colony1269 Words   |  6 Pages Jamestown is located in Virginia (â€Å"Jamestown Colony† n.d.) Jamestown was founded in 1607 (â€Å"Jamestown Colony† n.d.) Plymouth was located in Massachusetts (â€Å"Plymouth Colony†n.d.) Plymouth was founded in 1620 (â€Å"Plymouth Colony† n.d.) The Jamestown colonists came from England ( â€Å"Stebbins, 2011†). King Jame I gave Virginia its name (â€Å"Stebbins, 2011†). The Plymouth colonists came from England (â€Å"Plymouth Colony† n.d.) The Jamestown colony was allowed to use the river (â€Å"Colonizing the Chesapeake andRead MoreEssay On Jamestown Vs Plymouth705 Words   |  3 PagesJamestown vs Plymouth The essay discusses from the story â€Å"From the generall histroy of Virginia†, by John Smith, a histrorical narrative is about the landing and the discovery of Virginia in 1607 at a place called Jamestown, this was the first permanent english settlement in the new world, the americas. Also â€Å"From of Plymouth plantation†, by William Bradford, a historical account, is about when 13 years later about 100 settlers went on the big fancy ship called the Mayflower and landed in MassachusettsRead MoreSimilarities Between Jamestown And Plymouth Colonies992 Words   |  4 Pagesand the new way of life. The colonies of Jamestown and Plymouth Plantation both had many similarities and a few differences when they came to America in the journey to build more and more colonies. When Jamestown had decided to set sail to make colonies in America, John Smith was chosen to make the trips in chains. When he got to America, he was chosen to be one of the council members, a very high position amongst the group members. The colony of Jamestown had a very hard time and struggled in survivingRead MoreEssay on Plymouth and Jamestown: Government, Power, and Survival462 Words   |  2 PagesThe Jamestown and Plymouth settlements were both settled in the early 1600s. Plymouth and Jamestown were located along the shoreline in Massachusetts and Virginia, respectively. Although both had different forms of government, they both had strong leadership. Jamestown was controlled by the London Company, who wanted to profit from the venture, while the Puritans who settled at Plymouth were self-governed with an early form of democracy and settled in the New World to gain religious freedom. JohnRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between Plymouth And Jamestown1185 Words   |  5 PagesPlymouth vs Jamestown Leaders of Plymouth and Jamestown are both compare because they both came from England, Native Americans aided the newly incorporated groups by supplying them for food, and both empires resulted in the starvation and death. However, in Jamestown, John Smith set a goal to make money and get rich, developed the idea of everyone for themselves, men were the dominant gender, and Smith abandoned the colony and never decided to return. As for Plymouth, William Bradford s’ goal wasRead MoreCompare And Contrast Jamestown And From Of Plymouth Plantation714 Words   |  3 Pageshistorical narrative is about the landing and the discovery of Virginia in 1607 at a place called Jamestown, this was the first permanent English settlement in the new world, the Americas. Also â€Å"From of Plymouth plantation†, by William Bradford, a historical account, is about when 13 years later about 100 settlers went on the big fancy ship called the Mayflower and landed in Massachusetts at a place they named Plymouth. With these two colonies, english settlements in north America were born. They historicallyRead MoreComparison Of The Plymouth And Plymouth Plantation Colonies767 Words   |  4 PagesPlymouth Jamestown Colonies Sailing overseas from England to a new world were two colonies The Jamestown Colony and The Plymouth Plantation colony travel for their own beneficial reasons to better their lives . both colonies were very different and had different ways , but both faced similar survival situations. Captain John Smith and his crew initially traveled to America to make money in regards to becoming wealthy. The ship mainly contained men. Every man for themselves type of relationshipRead MoreExploratons and Colonization of North and South America Essay examples916 Words   |  4 Pagesenslaved. The Plymouth colony was the most successful and admirable colony of the 17th century. Though Jamestown is known as America’s first boomtown because of the planting of tobacco, they did not prosper as much as the Plymouth colony did. The Plymouth colony escaped Europe to seek religious freedom while the people of the Jamestown colony came to America for wealth (ushistory.org). This shows that the Plymouth colony had more admirable motives than Jamestown colony. The people of Plymouth were ableRead MoreThe United States1676 Words   |  7 Pageswith James I issuing a charter to the Virginia Company, known then as the London Company, in 1606, but it progressed from that rough start to become the first permanent English colony in North America, located in Jamestown. New additions soon came to what would be the United States: Plymouth in 1620; eastern Massachusetts in 1630; and finally Maryland in 1632. The first two colonized regions of North America by the British, the Chesapea ke Bay and New England, faced early difficulties, had relativelyRead MoreCompare And Contrast John Smith And William Bradford746 Words   |  3 Pagesestablishing a colony in North America. During the landing, he meets a young girl named Pocahontas which that little girl saves his life if it wasnt for her, her dad would kill him at the moment. After that happen, he was elected for president for Jamestown he was the new leader. John was cocky man and mention he didnt talk about anything else in his journals besides how heroic he was. He was very boastful and braggart he told his story in third point view. But either way â€Å" John Smith made sure that

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

LANDFILLS Solid waste is the term that civil engin Essay Example For Students

LANDFILLS Solid waste is the term that civil engin Essay LANDFILLSSolid waste is the term that civil engineers use to refer to what most of us call garbage. Municipal solid waste is most familiar to us. It comes from households, institutions, and small businesess. These solid wastes enter the solid-waste stream, and the flow never ceases. While many normal activities are suspended during weekends and holidays, the flow of garbage is non-stop. Some holidays, such as Christmas, create an enormous wave of solid waste.There are essentially four ways to deal with garbage: 1) recycle it into something that can be used again, 2) dump it, 3) burn it, or 4) reduce the source of material products (such as packaging) in order to eliminate future garbage. Throughout history, dumping has been the preferred means of disposal. Today, landfills are Americas primary method for the disposal of garbage.Approximately 40 to 50 percent of everything we throw away is paper. Newspapers account for as much as 18 percent of the volume in a landfill. Grass clippings and raked-up leaves account for nearly 20 percent of our waste.Much of the notion that biodegradation takes place within a landfill is a myth. Some food and yard debris degrade at a very slow rate, but the remainder of the garbage in landfills seems to retain its original form, weight, and volume. Even after being buried in a landfill for several years, the print on newspapers remains legible. Landfills also contain a considerable amount of hazardous waste. Today, pesticides, cleansers, and motor oil are commonly found in most households. Many of these find their way to the trash. Therefore, landfills must be designed for the safe disposal of hazardous household waste. Currently, there is a critical shortage of landfills, expecially in the northeastern United States. It is estimated that 40 percent of the landfills now in use will close down within five years. The reason the percentage is so high is that most landfills are designed to be in use for only about ten years.Many landfills now closing are open dumps. Rain and groundwater trickle through the trash and dissolve metals and other chemicals. This toxic liquid, called leachate, can ooze into the ground and contaminate nearby wells and streams.In sanitary landfills, daily deposits of fresh garbage are covered with a layer of dirt or plastic or both. However, sanitary landfills can still exude leachate into the water table. In new sanitary landfills, the basin is often lined with clays and impermeable plastic sheets to keep the leachate in.While so many of the countrys landfills are closing down in the next several years, solid-waste engineers face tremendous challenges to properly seal, salvage, and monitor some of the nations most contaminated dumps.The use of sanitary landfills presents several additional challenges beyond safety and efficiency. One major problem is cost. It is often necessary to transport garbage several hundred miles to an available landfill. The cost for transporting garbage to a landfill can be excessive.An even bigger problem is location. Even if the landfill does not leak pollutants or foul the air, no one wants a landfill for a neighbor. Consequently, the old landfills are not being replaced.Due to the critical shortage of landfills and the concerns about their safety, environmental consciousness has been raised. There is a growing awareness of the need to improve the environment and become less dependent on landfills. We must finds ways to reduce waste, and we must find ways to convert waste into something that can be used again. Source reduction offers a real and lasting contribution toward solving our nations solid waste problem and conserving landfill space. Talk to your legislators, both federal and state, about this genuine method of reducing the volume of garbage.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

The Transformation of Collective Security Essay Example

The Transformation of Collective Security Essay Security is primarily an issue of a nations relations with other states or a group of states. This relationship among states which feel threatened by each other is exposed to the security dilemma. 6 It is generally argued that the security of nations cannot be defined in general terms, nor can it be determined objectively. 7 Definitions depend on states perception about threats and safety. Therefore, on security no precise definition has ever been achieved and probably never will be. 8 There appears to be almost a studied vagueness about the precise definition of terms such as security. This complexity is also related to the problem of which areas of life are the subject of security. In this regard, theoretical debate occurs between two views of security approach to security, the traditionalists, it is argued that identifying security issues is easy as they equate security with military issues and the use of force. 10 Traditionalists also strongly oppose the widening of security stud ies, as by such logic, issues like pollution, disease, child abuse or economic 5 Till, pop. Cit. , in note 1, p. 96. We will write a custom essay sample on The Transformation of Collective Security specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Transformation of Collective Security specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Transformation of Collective Security specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The security dilemma refers to the notion that a states efforts to increase its security by threatening another state, which then responds with steps to increase its own security, paradoxically erodes the first states security. See C. A. Checkup, The Case for Collective Security, in Downs, G. W. (De), Collective Security beyond the Cold War, ( USA: University of Michigan Press, 1994), up. 41-69. 7 A. V. Sausage, The Security of Western Europe, (London: Sherwood Press, 1985), p. 2. 8 C. Then, Problems of Transition in J. Alfred et al, Europe in Western Alliance, (London: MacMillan Press, 1988), p. 7. 9 G. Edwards and B. Burrows, The Defense of Western Europe , (Norfolk: Butterscotch, 1982), p. 91. 10 B. Abuzz et al, Security , A New Framework for Analysis, , ( London: Lonely Runnier pub. 1998), p. 3. 6 3 recessions could be viewed as threats to security. Here we see that the traditionalist view regards only military and political subjects as the focus of studies in the security field. Yet, this approach has entered an impasse and led to increasing dissatisfaction in explaining the events taking place in the international arena later on. As pointed out by one of the proponents of the wider approach, this dissatisfaction was stimulated first by the rise of the economic and environmental agendas in international relations during the sass and the sass and later by the rise of concerns with identity issues and transnational crime during the sass. 11 Today it is obvious that this narrow definition does not fully cover the parameters of the new security environment in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. With the end of the Cold War and the break-up of the Soviet Union, the political and intellectual climate has changed. Studies in this regard have articulated very different views about how to define the concept of security. The narrow definition of security tends to focus on material capabilities and the use of military force by states. This, however, contrasts with the distinctions among military, political, economic, social, and environmental security threats. 12 Thus, with this transforming understanding of what security means today, the advocates of the wider approach concentrate on discussing the dynamics of security in five sectors, that is, military, political, economic, environmental and societal. This methodological framework also seems to better serve distinguishing security issues as hard and soft. 14 Faced with such a unavoidable due to the different analytical perspectives on the issue. Yet, in view of the presence of security risks of different natures, it is, at least from the practical point of view, a fact that security at present should be regarded as not merely, or even mainly, a matter 11 Ibid. , p. 2. P. J. Austenite (De), The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in Word Politics , (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), up. -9. 13 See the introduction in Suzan, pop. It. , up. 1-21. 14 Generally speaking, security issues requiring military options and relating to defense are considered hard ones whereas others that require non-military measures such as conflict prevention are regarded as soft. But this distinction today appears to be less relevant in view of events and experience in world affairs. See for details M. T. Clare and D. C. Thomas (De) , World Security, ( New York: SST. Martins Press, 1991). 12 of military policy, but of broader economic and political policies. For threats to security are not necessarily of a military nature, but they might derive from various there reasons. In view of the above, one can draw two main conclusions. Irrespective of which subjects are to be considered in dealing with the security concept, it seems evident that security is about preservation of the existence of states. And, in this preservation effort, the military component is always present even if as a last resort. Similarly, threat perception and the nature of such perceived threats are important in determining whether and how the perceived threat should be viewed as a matter of security. This brings us to the concept of collective security. Here, similar to the conceptual problem in defining security, a precise definition of collective security mains elusive. Not only do definitions differ,which is bound to happen in public debate and scholarly discourse, but also some directly contradict each other. 18 In simple terms, collective security is related to efforts by a group of states to act together in order to better preserve their own security. The term has been used to describe everything from loose alliance systems to any period of history in which wars do not take place. This wide Serialization, in the words of Suzan, means a process by which the issue in question is presented as an existential threat, requiring emergency measures and justifying actions outside the normal bonds of political procedure. See Suzan, pop. Cit. , up. 23-24. 16 Ibid. , p. 24. 17 J. C. Garnett, Introduction: Conflict and Security in the new world order, in M. J. Davis, (De), Security Issues in the Post-Cold War, (I-J: Edward Legal Pub. Ltd, 1996), p. 10. 18 G. W. Downs, Beyond the Debate on Collective Security, in Downs, G. W. De), Collective Security beyond the Cold War, ( USA: University of Michigan Press, 1994), up. 1-17. Spectrum is also due to the nature of security threats. States ally to increase their security against perceived threats. 19 In any particular balance of power system, there are usually groups of states that share to some extent an assessment of those threats. States face two kinds of threats in general. 20 The first is usually the reason for which stat es Join their forces in the first place, I. E. An external threat from a potential aggressor who is not part of the group. The second threat is of a more insidious but often Just as dangerous nature, namely, an internal threat from a member of the group itself that betrays its friends and uses force against them. The first form of collective security is best illustrated by the alliance system. An alliance functions as a collective body that defends its members from security threats directed from outside. Thus it includes the concept of collective defense as well. Moreover, although an alliance is focused on external threats, the security is collective for its members. On the other hand, the best illustration of security arrangements countering internal threats coming from members of a collective security body is the security community. 21 Collective security rests on the notion of one for all and all for one. Here, the question of why states come together for collective security can be argued is clear enough. It is because they share the same threat perceptions against which they think they will be better-off if they act together. Yet, the question of how they perceive the same threat is not that clear. This brings us to the issue of identity-building. Identification is considered a social concept. 22 The process of identity formation is of a kind that develops within a social unit. Any identification requires a distinction Just as any 19 See K. Waltz, Theory of International Politics, ( Reading: Addison Wesley, 1979) and also S. Walt, The Origins of Alliance , ( Ithaca: Cornel, 1987) 20 See for details S. Weber, Does NATO have a future 7, in Crawford, B. (De), The Future 21 This concept was first introduced by Van Wagner, and later in 1957 developed by Karl Deutsche with theoretical arguments . For the views of Dutch, see particularly E. Adler, Rupees New Security Order: A Pluralistic Security Community, and P. W. Schultz, Competing for European Security: The SEC, NATO and the European Community in a Changing International Environment, both in Crawford, B. (De), The Future of European Security, (Berkeley: University of California at Berkeley, 1992). 22 A. N. Hurdles, Bravura Kim ¤inn LOL#lam eve Tark Gimlet in Atilt Realer (De) Trisky eve Bravura, (Ankara: image Active, 1997) p. 18. 6 distinction necessitates some identification 23 . This brings us to the self/other dichotomy. The self is identified in relation to its position visa- ¤-visa the other 24 . In other words, all identities exist only with their otherness. Without the other, the self actually cannot know either itself or the world because meaning is created in discourse where consciousness meets. 25 Identification is of an exclusionary nature for the non-identified. In other words, in the identification of a group of people as a community, this unit is externalities of or disassociated from the values, myths, symbols, attitudes and mores of those (non-identified) with whom the unit does not identify itself. 6 It is also argued that the existence or the perception of threats from the other inevitably strengthens the identity of the self. 27 The formation of the self is inextricably intertwined with the formation of its others and a failure to regard the others in their own right must necessarily have repercussions for the formation of the self. 28 Identity is the key element of a cognitive regi on. Shared self-definitions create internalized norms that allow people from different countries to know each other better and thus respond more effectively to the common concerns. What constitutes the basis for collective security arrangements is therefore the mutual responsiveness developed out of answers to the questions of who I am and who the other is. In other words, it is the collective identity, which lays the ground for a sound collective security. The importance of identities can thus be summarized as follows: common identities help to establish a security whose existence, I. E. Elective security, proves that members share common identities. A. N. Hurdles, International Relations and the Philosophy of History: a Civilization Approach, ( London: MacMillan, forthcoming), p. 105. 24 K. Krause, Critical Theory and Security Studies, Cooperation and Conflict, Volvo (33)3, 1998, p. 312.. 25 Hurdles, pop. Cit. , in note 22, p. 107. 27 Hurdles, , pop. Cit. , in note 21, p. 21 . 28 Neumann, pop. Cit. , p. 35. 7 In view of the foregoing, one can easily understand that collective identities and shared values as well as shared understandings as regards threat perceptions are of significant importance for the creation of a workable collective security arrangement. The identity issue entered into International Relations full fledged with the critical theories, such as constructivism. However, mainstream approaches 29 also acknowledge identity. But, how it differs from the constructivist approach is that it presumes to know priori what the self-being is defined as. The state as a unit is assumed to have a single identity, across time and space whereas constructivism assumes that the selves, or identities, of states are variable, they likely depend on historical, cultural, political and social context 30 . Accordingly, as regards the object of security, the constructivist approach questions how the object of security is constructed according to threat perceptions. Here, the argument that discourses of threat are constitutive of the object to be secured relates to the question of how such threats are identified. In view of the foregoing, one can see that constructivism helps better explain collective security formations that are constitutive of collective identities. Thus, sound collective security arrangements are forms of collective identity that exclude each other on the basis of their distinctiveness. Here, it can be argued that those security regimes could not establish a collective identity against a common threat. In other words, the selves in hose organizations did not come together against a common other. In the Cold War era, the other was the East for the West and vice versa, although members of both Blocs remained in the same global security regime, the I-JNI. Therefore, their stay in the UN was not due to the creation of a common identity but due to a felt need. IMPACT OF THE POST-COLD WAR The post-Cold War has had a considerable impact on this state of affairs. The end of the Cold War, which for almost half a century had been the symbol of division in Europe, was marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall on October 3rd 1989. The fall of the Berlin wall meant also the collapse of the ideological walls which had divided Europe for so many years. The end of the Cold War even raised questions regarding the necessity of NATO as military alliances normally dissolve once their common enemy has been defeated. However, , 31 See for details, particularly A. Bennett, and J. Leopold, Reinventing Collective Security After the Cold War, Political Science Quarterly, Volume 18, Issue 2, 1993. 32 Ibid. With the rise of non-conventional and asymmetric security threats this was proven not to be the case 33 . What is new in this sense is the effect of globalization on these threats. Today, in a world where things have increasingly become more transnational and interdependent, owing to the effects of globalization, any incident in a country or in region, be it a terrorist act or an ethnic conflict, poses threats to other areas due to the domino effect. As a corollary to this, threats that transcend borders happen to affect security more rapidly, more severely in an ever-expanding magnitude with spill-over effects. These threats inevitably necessitate collective responses as they affect almost all states in one way or another. In such an environment, Europe in particular and the world in general have dinettes several hot conflicts and wars in Just one decade in the post-Cold War era, which amounts to more than occurred in the whole course of the Cold War years. The European continent, which had been free from wars since the end of World War II, once again became a continent of conflict and death with a wars that erupted in its very midst, like in the territories of the former Yugoslavia or in its vicinity, or like the Caucasus or elsewhere like in the Middle East, I. E. The Gulf war. In view of this, one can argue that the basic premises of mainstream scholarship, such as anarchical setting, power politics based on national interests, etc. , are still present in the world affairs. True, mainstream scholarship failed to anticipate the end of the Cold War. But, the world order, which has replaced the Cold War era, still proves the validity of mainstream scholarship. States act in pursuit of preservation of their interests and of protection of their 33 Asymmetric threat is defined as a threat that can cause harm in bigger magnitude than its size. Such threats vary from international terrorism, ethnic conflicts and religious fundamentalism through organized crime, drug trafficking, and proliferation f weapons of mass destruction to mass migrations, environmental disasters, poverty etc. See Irked, S. , 11 Elll 2001: Terrorizing Yen Milady, Strategic Animal, Sally 18, Skim 2001. Asymmetric threat is also defined as a threat that does not follow the rules of fair warfare including surprise attacks, as well as warfare with weapons used in an unconventional manner. See www. Rand. Org/news links/terrorism. .NET. 10 security in the face of both conventional and non-conventional security threats. However, the main question here is how they gather support from other states for such policies and how legitimacy is attained for them. In fact, the turnaround effects of such security threats help states gather the support of like-minded states and act collectively to protect their security against such threats. Collective security arrangements have been seriously proposed after every large- scale war, such as the Napoleonic Wars, World War l, and World War II. The end of the Cold War followed the same path both in academic and state circles. In this regard, naturally the I-IN, being the only global organization for collective security, has been called upon several times. In the post-Cold War era, the UN Security Council has adopted a series of resolutions availing itself of the right to humanitarian through a number of experiences as witnessed in various wars and fights such as that of the Gulf, Bosnia and Somalia. 4 Despite this gradual progress in fulfilling its task of collective security, the UN faced a deadlock during the Spooks crisis in 1999. Due to Russia and Chinas objection to a military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the UN could not reach a decision authorizing the formation of a military force with the Security Council mandate and this implicitly left it up to NATO to take the responsibility . In light of these one can see that even in the post-Cold War era the UN system has maintained the inertia it derives from its organizational set-up. This can be attributed to the following: In the post-Cold War era, although one of the Blocs disappeared, it was evident that at least the old leader of the East , I. E. Russia on the one hand and the USA together with the rest of the Western Bloc on the other, continued to regard each other as other. This was because they have not been able create a collective identity (self), as they could not define a common threat (other) either. See for details C. Gaucherie, International Law and the War in Spooks, Survival, , Volume 41, No: 2, Summer 1999. POST-SEPTEMBER 11 ERA The world that embarked on a new millennium with these important shifts in international affairs in general and in the collective security field in particular, was unable to avoid the tragedy of September 1 lath. The terrorist attacks of September 1 1 have changed many, if not all, parameters in world affairs, and has important repercussions for security in a variety of ways and the approach to collective security is no exception to this. In the wake of the terrorist attacks, NATO allies lined up Enid the US and in an unprecedented display of support and solidarity they invoked, on 12 September 2001, Article 5 of the Washington Treaty of the Alliance, the core clause of collective defense, for the first time in the history of the Alliance. 35 This decision seems to have constituted a dramatic shift in the conceptualization of what forms hard and soft security issues. First, it was bitterly confirmed that terrorism is one of the most dangerous non-conventional asymmetric security threats. Similarly, it was also confirmed that terrorists can easily access weapons of ass destruction. More importantly, with the invocation of Article 5 and the military operation directed against the al-Qaeda terrorist network and its sanctuary the Taliban regime, it has become clear that the fight against terrorism, which was always regarded as a matter of soft security, would also require hard security measures, including military ones, in the post-September 1 1 era. In this context, one can argue that the September 11 terrorist attacks have provided a conducive atmosphere for the creation of a new other, I. E. Common enemy. This was

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

ANwar Sadats DEcision to make peace with israel essays

ANwar Sadats DEcision to make peace with israel essays Throughout time the decisions made by an individual or a group, such as President Anwar Sadat and his decision to make peace with Israel has dramatically changed the course of history. Every leader in history has made a decision that has affected the world, or just his nation in some way. After many years of struggling to keep peace among the Jews and Arabs, President Anwar Sadat, finally decided to make peace with Israel. Peace between Israel and Egypt would mean great changes were going to take place. This momentous decision would be a large step up for the two nations and would lead to them better lives, in peace. Before the Egyptian Israeli Peace Pact was signed in 1978, Palestine and Israel were enemies with each other in every way possible. They were nowhere near being on good terms with one another. One war constantly followed another, and it was impossible for them to live in peace. Neither side saw even a slight possibility of this happening. Since Arab nations refused to accept the fact that Israel could be a Jewish state, all the Arabs had on their minds was the destruction of the country. Anwar Sadat was prepared to sacrifice one million soldiers in the destruction of Israel (Bard, us-israel.org/jsource/History/73_War.html). The Suez War(1956), which followed the Israeli War of Independence, the British, French, and the US agreed not to supply the Israeli or Arabs with any needed weapons. Since they could not get weapons from those countries, Egypt made an arms deal with Czechoslovakia. Now, with their weapons, Egypt was able to invade Israel constantly. Egyptian President Nassar nationalized the Suez Canal, and did not allow Israel, or the French and British to use it, since they were supplying Israel with armaments. The three nations, Britain, France, and Israel attacked Egypt, and immediately defeated the Egyptians. The French and British prot...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

HRM2013 Human Resource Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

HRM2013 Human Resource Management - Essay Example The structure of the organization will determine the responsibilities, reporting structure and hierarchy. Organizational structure varies depending on locations, nature of business and people. It helps in arranging people and jobs to meet the requirements of the management. The structure of the organization impacts the workplace culture and employee behavior, motivation, performance, job satisfaction. (About Organizational Structure, n.d) There are 3 different types of organizational structures that are used in fast food companies depending on the size, technology and span of control; they are Bureaucratic Organizational structure: This form is often found rigid and inflexible as they are not accustomed to changes. Network structure Functional Organizational structure (Walter, 2011) Chuck E Cheese is one of the best fast food joints which are not present in the UK. It’s a great place for the kids as there are many attractions such as games and rides. Most of the fast food join ts adopt a very traditional organizational structure to their outlets. To establish Chuck E Cheese in the UK, it is best to have a centralized organizational structure where decisions are made by the top management. For chuck e cheese to enter the UK market, it is important to utilize a multinational strategy which helps the company to develop products that would reach the UK market. It helps the company to adapt to the local trends. If chuck E Cheese is to enter the UK market, it is better it practices a decentralized organizational structure where in decision making can be made by lower level management. This provides an opportunity for the top management to focus on other issues as opposed to looking over subunit level details. (Organizational Issues in Strategy, n.d) II. Employee Relations It is very important to have a good employer employee relationship as it helps in communicating issues, views and other requirements. Managers play a crucial role in maintaining good employee relations. The public sector organization considered is the British Council. This organization has well laid staff policies and procedures which includes the following- The employer employee relationship Industrial relations Grievances Discipline Confidentiality and Integrity The supervisors of the British council are given the primary responsibility in managing staff; recruitment; motivation; health safety and staff welfare; recognition and reward programs. At the British Council, the employee relations are based on equality of opportunity. There is a two way communication between the employees and the management. If there has been any deviation in the British Council policy, the reason must be clearly justified to the human resource department. There are number of factors that affect the relationship between the employees and the supervisors such as- Policies and procedures of the company Company’s internal values and standards Contractual agreement Social norms One of the main important employee policies is to provide equal opportunities to all irrespective of