Friday, February 7, 2020
ANCIENT GREEK SOCIETY - Essay Example Ancient Greek philosophy is a very diverse subject and the scope of this paper is limited to the key aspects focusing on philosophers from the Presocratics to the Neoplatonists. Presocratics Presocratics is a term used to describe philosophers that existed before Socrates. Despite the fact that the ancient Greek society did not primarily use mythological ideas to explain certain events, it is still clear that their logic to some extent was influenced by older wisdom (Anton et al., 20-45). The initial consent of pre-Socratic philosophers was to explain the entire cosmos, with the aim of identifying the underlying principle behind it (Anton et al., 20-30). The Presocratics originated from Western and Eastern Greece, where as Plato, Aristotle and Socrates were from Athens. Presocratics mainly focused on physics, a trait they were acknowledged for over the years. As they were the first philosophers, they strongly objected mythical ideologies emphasizing on rationality of things. Their ma in scientific interests included astronomy, mathematics, and biology (Anton et al., 20-45). Unfortunately, the original evidence of their works is absent. Their ideas and knowledge of their work is derived from proceeding literature such as The Opinions Physicists by Theophratus (Anton et al., 20-45). The first philosophers of this time originated from Ionia and aims of this great the material principle of objects, the reasons for their disappearance and also their origin. It was in this time that Thales of Miletus determined water to be the basis of living things. Other philosophical principles that proceeded include the differentiation between cold and hot, moist and dry which were derived from the principle formulated by Anaximander. Philosophy was however first introduced to everyday life by Pythagoras of Samos. He perceived the world as perfectly harmonious, dependent on number, and encouraged the population to live a life of harmony. Xenophenes of Colophon, also referred to as the father of pantheism, referred to God as an eternal unity governing the daily activities of the world with his thoughts (Anton et al., 20-45). In later years, a materialistic system was formulated by Leucippus and Democritus which involved one of the first doctrines of atoms or indivisible elements. These were assumed to be infinite, in divisible, qualitatively similar and imperishable. They were assumed to move eternally, unite and collide on several occasions. In essence it is clear that the main of objective of these philosophers was to decipher the ultimate basis of nature. In this era, the conception of human knowledge resolved around the philosophersÃ¢â¬â¢ theories on the constitution of things. Socrates The era between 469-399 BCE was that of Athenian Socrates (Anton et al., 20-45). Socrates rejected the previous theories formulated by his predecessors, making opinions and thoughts central in his theories. Socrates excessively questioned people on their opinions which i s opposite to the approach that was taken by Sophists, who considered thoughts and beliefs of people as their standard (Kingley, 45-79). Socrates lived in a period of transition from the Athenian hegemony to its defeat in the Peloponessian War by Sparta and its allies (Kingley,
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Actions and context of social Essay Hale arrives in Salem and begins to interrogate Abigail. He is very direct and soon Abigail realises that she cannot avoid his questions any more. She knows she must escape his attention but she cannot run otherwise she will look suspicious. Instead, she cleverly implicates Tituba. Abigail constructs her involvement to become the leader of the proceedings, trying to force the other girls and her into following her lead. After confession, Tituba is told to tell the names of people seen with the devil. Mrs Putnam asks whether her past midwives had been in contact with the devil. Abigail soon says the names of Sarah Good and Goody Osburne as she quickly reveals that they are in contact with the devil. By satisfying her interrogators suspicions, despite their untruthfulness she can divert attention away from herself. Her intelligence and unique influence is demonstrated as she does so and sends the professional men of the court into a frenzied excitement, as they believe they have found someone in touch with the devil. By being the first and shouting out names, she has power and trust with the court. She then begins to call out more names, adding to Titubas list. This excites Betty whom immediately rises and joins in the chanting of names. She is described to be calling out hysterically and with great relief. Then their ecstatic cries turn into a gleeful tone, adding an evil edge. Abigail has forged her way out of trouble and Betty has picked up on the plan, assured that she is safe from punishment and joins Abigail. They are now beyond accusation or danger and happy to call names out. Betty is following Abigail, but Abigail has no need to continue as she has already said Elizabeths name. The other names of people, she has no involvement with and most importantly, people who bear no importance in Salem and are vulnerable to prosecution. It is a fiendish scene, as if the girls are possessed by evil. They are not however and that leaves only one reason, that Abigail is wreaking her specific revenge for her parents deaths. It is one of her more evil actions in the play, as it cannot be accounted for. This shows that she does not hate and have power over people she wants revenge for, but everyone of human society. In my opinion, she is a disturbed character. She is initially perceived as being wild bright and proud. Her character then develops a ghastly quality that becomes a large influence over everybody in the village of Salem. She abuses this ability to turn things to her advantage and others fate. She develops an evil insensitive, which would seem to be her character, however occasionally she shows different emotions in moments of intense passion and fear. Abigail is the hidden secret of the play. She covers behind her sweet little girl innocence and manipulates it between the characters, which brings up many truths from the past. Her quest however, soon becomes an addiction as she has people killed and blames anyone to get back John Proctor.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Teodoro Moscoso Teodoro Moscoso and Puerto RicoÃ¢â¬â¢s Operation Bootstrap by Alex W. Maldonado tells us about the life of Teodoro Moscoso, the architect of the Ã¢â¬Å"economic miracleÃ¢â¬ which most experts did not believe could happen in Puerto Rico. Teodoro Moscoso was born in Barcelona on November 26, 1910. His mother, named Alejandrina Mora Fajardo, was a Spaniard from the Balearic island of Majorca. His father, also named Teodoro, was a pharmacist. He wanted to have a son that could help him accomplish, a branch of pharmacies through Puerto Rico. Moscoso attended school in New York and became a good English speaker. He graduated from Ponce High School; soon after this, he was attending the Philadelphia School of Pharmacy. After studying there for 3 years he insisted to his father, to transfer him to the University of Michigan. He wanted to go there because it offered liberal arts courses which he wanted to study. After graduation in 1932 Moscoso returned to Ponce to work at his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s pharmacy. He married Gloria SÃ ¡nchez Vilella, sister of future Puerto Rico governor Roberto SÃ ¡nchez Vilella (1965-1969). Pharmacy work bored Moscoso, and in the mid 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s when the Ponce Housing Authority (PHA) was about to lose a two million dollar grant, Pedro Juan Rosaly, a PHA board member approached MoscosoÃ¢â¬â¢s father and asked if his son could help. MoscosoÃ¢â¬â¢s command of the English language was what drew the interest of PHA officials. Moscoso saved the grant and from 1937 to 1941 he build nearly one thousand housing units, clearing many Ponce slums in the process. It was MoscosoÃ¢â¬â¢s work at PHA which captured the interest of the newly appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Rexford G. Tugwell. Tugwell was a member President Franklin D. RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s brain trust, a group of well educated, committed Americans who went to Washington during the Great Depression to try to lift the nation out of the economic crisis. After a chance meeting when Tugwell visited MoscosoÃ¢â¬â¢s pharmacy in Ponce, Teodoro went to work in La Fortaleza as assistant for housing. The title was a formality in order to get Moscoso a salary for his work, but the actual duties were far broader. Another important event in Teodoro MoscosoÃ¢â¬â¢s life occurred in the summer of 1940 when Moscoso met Luis MuÃ ±oz MarÃ n.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
A REPORTSUBMITTED TOWARDS THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENTOF THE REQUIREMENTS OF TWO YEARS FULL-TIME POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN (BUSINESS) MANAGEMENT SUBMITTED BY: PUNIT GUPTA PROGRAMME: PGPM ROLLNO: 2K8/PGPM/B20 SESSION: 2007-09 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES (NEW DELHI) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The feeling of acknowledging something and expressing it in words are two different things altogether. It is our weakness, but we honestly admit that when we truly wish to express our warm gratitude and indebt ness towards somebody concerned, we are always at a loss of words. We gratefully take this opportunity to express our gratitude and indebtedness to our most able guide Mrs. NIDDHI TANDON for his active interest, timely encouragement, valuable suggestions and unceasing assistance and creative criticism at every stage of this project. We would like to thank our institute HT MEDIA LTD. for providing us with this opportunity to undertake this project. KRATIKA SINGH Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction 1. Backgound 2. Title of the Project 3. Rationale of Study Chapter II. Objectives & Scope of Study Chapter III. Review of Literature/Theoretical Perspectives Chapter IV. Research Methodology Chapters V, VI, Ã¢â¬â- Observations, Data Collection, Analysis, and Interpretation Chapter Findings Suggestions Conclusions Annextures Bibliography INTRODUCTION Mint is the business daily launched by HT Media Ltd. With the collaboration of the Wall Street Journal which is the most authoritative business daily in the world of newspaper for over 100 year. It is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest and most respected business news platform. The purpose behind mint was the robust growth of the Indian economy as is evident in the growing stock market. This long-term segment growth opened up an opportunity for a high quality daily newspaper. Although the business newspaper market was mainly dominated by economic times however there was a huge untapped potential for a high quality daily. And this is where HT, in collaboration with the Wall Street Journal, came out with HT Mint. Media Industry Media Industry comprises of newspaper, television, outdoor, magazine, radio, internet and cinema. Indian Media and Entertainment Industry have out performed the Indian Economy & is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. It is rising on the back of economic growth and rising income levels. The current size of the industry is estimated at $7. 7 billion and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 19% for the next 5 years. |Industry |2006 ($ Bn) |% share |Ã¢â¬â¢05-10 CAGR |FDI Limit | |TELEVISION |3. 7 |42% |24% |49% | |FILMED ENTERTAINMENT |1. |20% |18% |100% | |RADIO |O. 1 |1% |32% |20% | |MUSIC |0. 2 |2% |1% |100% | |LIVE ENTERTAINMENT |0. 2 |2% |18% |100% | |PRINT MEDIA |2. |30% |12% |100% | |OUT-OF-HOME MEDIA |0. 2 |3% |14% |100% | |INTERNET ADVERTISING |0. 0 |0% |50% |100% | Total media advertising (ad-spend) in India in 2004 was estimated by TAM Adex India at Rs. 118 billion. Print advertising accounted for the largest share with 46. 0%, followed by television with 41. %, outdoor advertising with 7. 0%, radio with 2. 0%, cinema advertising with 3. 0% and internet with 1%. Although print media in India (newspapers, magazines and niche publications) dominates ad-spend, newspapersÃ¢â¬â¢ share of the ad -spend fell as television gained, rising from approximately 40% in 2001 to 41% in 2004 (source: TAM Adex India). In 2004, print media ad-spend grew by 15% and television ad-spend grew by 13%, respectively, compared with 2003 (Source: TAM Adex India). Print mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s share of the ad-spend in India vis-a-vis television may now have stabilized. The apprehension about the print media being adversely affected by the advent of the Internet as a medium of sharing information seems to have been settled. While newspapers and magazines may have experienced some cannibalization by their digital equivalents, ad-spend in the print media has stabilized over the past few years. Set forth below is a chart that shows the ad-spend by media category in Asia/Pacific in 2000 through 2003. [pic] Indian Print Media The Indian newspaper industry is intensely competitive, with multiple national and regional players vying for a larger share of the readership, circulation and advertising market. A strong national brand combined with multi-city operations and a high level of content and product quality are emerging as the key differentiators, because it gives an opportunity to larger non-retail advertisers to reach out to multiple markets and high quality audiences at a low cost, while local advertisers can concentrate on city-specific advertising. Given these inherent advantages associated with having multi-city, large scale operations, the industry has begun to witness a phase of consolidation. We expect this process of consolidation to continue. The domestic industry at this time does not have foreign or multinational players operating, although that could happen in the future if and when the Government of India changes its foreign investment regulations and restrictions applicable to the print media segment. In addition to intra-segment competition, the Indian newsprint industry is also faced with the competition posed by other forms of media including television broadcasters, magazines, radio broadcasters and websites. Trends indicate that unlike in the global markets, print-ad spend is growing faster than electronic in India. In the calendar year 2005, print media ad- spend grew by 15% against 12% television as per Industry estimates. Contrary to global trends, both readership and circulation of newspapers are also growing in India. This strong growth trend for the Indian newspaper industry appears sustainable from medium-term perspective. Continued economic growth and increasing literacy is expected to enable players such as HT Media to be bigger beneficiaries in the event of any reversal in newsprint price trends. Newspaper readership in 2005 was 190 million (Source: NRS 2005), up from 165 million in 2003 (Source: NRS 2003). We believe that daily newspapers are increasingly being bought for their analysis of the news and current affairs and in this context, newspapers are gradually taking on the role of a magazine, thereby adversely impacting the magazine segment. FORMAT OF NEWSPAPER Most modern newspapers are in one of three sizes: 1) Broadsheets: 600Ã mm by 380Ã mm (23? by 15 inches), generally associated with more intellectual newspapers, although a trend towards Ã¢â¬Å"compactÃ¢â¬ newspapers is changing this. ) Tabloids: half the size of broadsheets at 380Ã mm by 300Ã mm (15 by 11? inches) and often perceived as sensationalist in contrast to broadsheets. Examples: The Sun, The National Enquirer, The National Ledger, The Star Magazine, New York Post, The Globe. 3) Berliner or Midi : 470Ã mm by 315Ã mm (18? by 12? inches) used by European papers such as Le Monde in France, La Stampa in Italy, El Pais in Spain and, since 12 September 2005, The Guardian in the United Kingdom. Newspapers are usually printed on inexpensive, off-white paper known as newsprint. Since the 1980s, the newspaper industry has largely moved away from lower-quality letterpress printing to higher-quality, four-color process, offset printing. In addition, desktop computers, word processing software, graphics software, digital cameras and digital prepress and typesetting technologies have revolutionized the newspaper production process. These technologies have enabled newspapers to publish color photographs and graphics, as well as innovative layouts and better design. To help their titles stand out on newsstands, some newspapers are printed on colored newsprint. For example, the Financial Times is printed on a distinctive salmon pink paper, and the Italian sports newspaper La Gazzetta Dello Sport is printed on pink paper. SheffieldÃ¢â¬â¢s weekly sports publication derives its name, the Ã¢â¬Å"Green Ã¢â¬â¢UnÃ¢â¬ , from the traditional colour of its paper, while L'Equipe (formerly LÃ¢â¬â¢Auto) is printed on yellow paper. Both the latter promoted major cycling races and their newsprint colours were reflected in the colours of the jerseys used to denote the race leader; thus, the leader in the Giro d'Italia wears a pink jersey. Introduction to Indian Newspaper Industry Newspaper is the oldest and the most conventional method of giving news on a wide array of topics to the people at their doorstep. The newspaper industry at the global arena has come a long way from presenting news in black and white to adopting the most innovative of methods, including colored background and text, unique paper materials, etc to depict all kinds of news for readers. The Indian newspaper industry has the record of giving the most number of newspapers to the readers, both at the national as well as at the regional levels. One of the oldest newspapers of India, The Statesman was founded in 1818. It has been almost two centuries now since the inception of the oldest newspaper in the country. During this period, the Indian newspaper industry has achieved tremendous ground of success for various newspapers that are circulated throughout the country. The most unique fact of the Indian newspaper industry is that newspapers in various regional languages, Hindi, and English are published and circulated throughout the country. The Indian English newspaper sector is the most published and circulated lot in the Indian newspaper industry. With the newspaper industry as a viable platform for the proliferation of advertising and marketing of public relations, there has been witnessed an impressive explosion of newspapers at all levels. A typical Indian English newspaper serves as an ideal banner for companies who would look forward to advertise their products or services keeping in mind the strength of the readers nationwide. Since a newspaper is the first thing that most of the citizens of the country go through early in the morning, it stands at an advantage of making its stand in full view of the massive number of readers. The more the readers or viewers of the advertisements, the more impact the advertisements have made in the minds of the people. An Indian English newspaper being the most read newspaper in the country, most of the companies highlighting their services and products for the citizens, targets these newspapers for the showcase . Newspapers act as the ideal method of public relations due to its strength as the best way of communication. About Ht Media Ltd Founded in 1924 when its flagship newspaper Hindustan Times was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi, HT Media (BSE, NSE) has today become one of India's largest media companies. With a combined daily circulation of 2. 25 million copies and a readership base of 14. 49 million readers, Hindustan Times (English) and Hindustan (Hindi) enjoy strong brand recognition among readers and advertisers, and are produced by an editorial team known for its quality, innovation and integrity. HT Media operates 17 printing facilities across India with an installed capacity of 1. million copies per hour. HT's internet business, under the HindustanTimes. com portal, is primarily a news website with 2 million unique visitors and 100 million page views per month, with a significant share of the traffic coming from outside India. As part of its expansion into electronic media, HT Media, through its subsidiary HT Music and Entertainment Company Ltd. , has entered the FM radio market in key Ind ian cities through a consulting partnership with Virgin Radio. The channel, Fever 104, is one of the most vibrant on the airwaves and is currently available in Delhi and Mumbai. HT Media has also launched a national business newspaper, Mint, with an exclusive agreement with Wall Street Journal to publish Journal branded news and information in India. HT Media reported 2007 annual revenue of $245 million. For the fiscal third quarter ended December 31, 2007, the company reported a 13% increase in revenue to $82 million and a 10% increase of profit after tax (PAT) to $9 million from the year-ago quarter. History Hindustan Times was founded in 1924 by Master Sunder Singh Lyallpuri, founder-father of the Akali Movement and the Shiromani Akali Dal in Punjab. S Mangal Singh Gill (Tesildar) and S. Chanchal Singh (Jandiala, Jullundur) were made in charge of the newspaper. Pt Madan Mohan Malayia and Master Tara Singh were among the members of the Managing Committee. The Managing Chairman and Chief Patron was Master Sunder Singh Lyallpuri himself. K. M. Panikkar was its first Editor with Devdas Gandhi (son of Mahatma Gandhi) also on the editor's panel. The opening ceremony was performed by Mahatma Gandhi on September 15, 1924. The first issue was published from Naya Bazar, Delhi (now Swami Sharda Nand Marg). It contained writings and articles from C. F. Andrews, St. Nihal Singh, Maulana Mohammad Ali, C. R. Reddy (Dr. Cattamanchi Ramalinga Reddy), T. L. Vaswani, Ruchi Ram Sahni, Bernard Haton, Harinder Nath Chattopadhyaya, Dr Kichlu and Rubi Waston etc. It has its roots in the independence movement of the first half of the twentieth century. It was edited at times by many important people in India, including Devdas Gandhi (the son of Mahatma Gandhi) and Khushwant Singh. Ownership The Delhi-based English newspaper, Hindustan Times, is part of the KK Birla group and managed by Shobhana Bhartia, granddaughter of GD Birla. It is owned by HT Media Ltd. The KK Birla group at present owns 69 per cent stake in HT Media, currently valued at Rs 834 crore. When Bhartia joined Hindustan Times in 1986, she was the first woman chief executive of a national newspaper. [pic] [pic] [pic] Various brand working under HT media ltd. Hindustan Times: Hindustan Times, the flagship publication from the group, was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1924 and has established its presence as a newspaper with editorial excellence and integrity. Today, Hindustan Times has a circulation of over 1. million and is the fastest growing mainline English newspaper in terms of readership. Hindustan Times, Delhi, is India's largest single-edition daily. In July 2005, Hindustan Times made a successful entry into the commercial capital of India Ã¢â¬â Mumbai. Hindustan Times is printed in nine centres including Bhopal, Chandigarh, Delhi, Mumbai, Jaipur, Kolkata, Lucknow, Patna and Ranchi. Hindustan Times believes in continuous improvement and providing greater value to its readers and advertisers. It has set many a standards for its competitors and will continue to do so in the years to come. It is the first smart-age newspaper in India to evolve into a new international size Ã¢â¬â sleeker and smarter Ã¢â¬â which ensures enhanced ease of reading and convenient handling. In its endeavour to provide its readers with greater value, Hindustan Times has revamped its existing supplements and added new ones to its portfolio, offering a daily supplement catering to specific target audience. Supplements like Brunch are the first of their kind. The enlarged operations and enhanced look have also paid off with a substantial increase in circulation across the country [pic] Hindustan: Started in 1936 and with a readership of over 10. million, HT Media Ltd. Ã¢â¬Ës Hindi daily, Hindustan, ranks as the 3rd most-read Hindi newspaper all over India. Edited by Ms Mrinal Pande, a noted journalist, academician and writer, Hindustan is known for its fair, unbiased and secular news reporting and analyses. The width and depth of Hindustan's editorial, including the newspaper's acclaimed supplements, is quite unparalleled in the Hindi language newspaper market. Hindustan is also the first and only vernacular newspaper to go all-colour in Delhi and other key markets. This has given Hindustan an un-paralleled edge over competition. The newspaper has four editions namely Delhi, Lucknow, Patna and Ranchi and nine print locations namely, Delhi, Lucknow, Varanasi, Patna, Muzzaffarpur, Bhagalpur, Ranchi, Dhanbad and Jamshedpur , chandigarh catering to the reading habits of a cross- section of audiences in varying age groups. Hindustan is expanding rapidly in the state of Uttar Pradesh, which is the largest Hindi newspaper market, and where Hindustan was already the fastest growing Hindi daily. Three new editions have been launched (in Meerut, Agra, and Kanpur) in 2006, giving a further boost to its growth and reach within the state. Hindustan dominates in Bihar with an undisputed readership of over 6 million. Its reader base is twice the size of its nearest competitor in the Hindi daily market of Bihar and Jharkhand (NRS 2003 vs. 2005). With some very exciting expansion plans already underway, Hindustan is all set to become the leading Hindi newspaper in the country. Currently, the Delhi edition of Hindustan is also available online in epaper format. [pic] Consolidating presence in existing businesses Revenue growing regarding Hindustan is more than 30% every year Aggressive expansion of readership base Rapid expansion in UP, Punjab & bihar Successful new launches in UP Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Meerut/Agra/Kanpur and chandigrah Encouraging consumer response to product Future plans Transferring Hindi business into a subsidiary Aggressive expansion strategy to market leader through UP, Uttranchal, MP and Punjab expansion HT NEXT: HT NEXT has everything that the youth ever wanted in a newspaper: sports news (great stories for English Premier League and Formula 1 nuts), nuggets on celebs (yes, even more colourful than Laloo Yadav), global and local news Ã¢â¬â in other words, Your world (which, incidentally, is Our version of the world too). There is even a political digest Ã¢â¬â Day In Politics- for those who want to go beyond the simpler, lighter matter, and seek to know which way the times are moving. Delhi, India and World are your dedicated pages for all the news that matters. Check out the daily science and nature section, Life, The Universe and Everything,or JLT for what's in these days. In case you are bitten by the writing bug, HT Next has the space and readership. Participate in daily debates if you like to lock horns on current affairs, post a message on Plug In if you wish to connect or simply dash off an original poem for My Space, if you have it in you. There are quizzes for those bent upon winning fabulous prizes, on e-mail or SMS! For the youth of India, this is Where It's At. Kadambini: With a long and celebrated history since its inception in 1960, this monthly Hindi magazine is a one-of-its-own-kind socio-cultural-literary journal. Kadambini is a monthly Hindi magazine published by HT Media Ltd. with a long and celebrated history of 44 years. It is a one-of-its-own-kind socio-cultural-literary magazine, which has survived the demise of many other Hindi magazines in the genre. Its first Editor was Late Shri Balkrishna Rao, a prominent Hindi writer. He was followed by Late Shri Ramanand Doshi, who was also a well-known literary figure, and during whose tenure Kadambini touched new heights. Its third Editor Shri Rajendra Awasthy was also a known literary figure. Mrs Mrinal Pande took charge as Editor in February 2003. Mrs Pande is a well-known and respected journalist and literary figure in Hindi, as well as English. Associate Editor Shri Vishnu Nagar is also a well-known figure in Hindi journalism and literature. Under Mrs Pande's able guidance and Associate Editor Shri Vishnu Nagar's leadership, Kadambini has scaled new heights of quality, readability and scientific approach. It is the only Hindi magazine which covers a wide range of subjects including literature, science, history, sociology, politics, films and sports with sincerity and popular appeal. Its every issue becomes a special issue as it focuses in-depth on one important and popular concern apart from its various regular features. It always prefers quality and readability over cheap, popular taste. Its new approach is widely appreciated by common readers as well as the enlightened sections of society. The magazine has created a new space for itself while retaining its old base. It is the only Hindi magazine, which guarantees that it will not compromise on family values. Kadambini is the only Hindi magazine which covers a wide range of subjects including literature, science, history, sociology, politics, films and sports with sincerity and popular appeal. Nandan: HT Media Ltd. Ã¢â¬Ës children's magazine has a popular appeal both in India and abroad. Ever since its inception in 1964, Nandan has published more than ten thousand stories, three thousand poems, and thousands of other creative pieces during these 40 years. It has been very popular among children and their families in India and abroad. The magazine was started in November 1964 in the memory of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, with its first issue being dedicated to the late Prime Minister. Nandan triumphs over its contemporaries because its stories are a combination of the best in both our traditional and modern cultural ethos. Nandan believes in shaping the mind and behaviour of our children in a positive way, and to challenge their minds by exposing them to new ideas for the world of science and technology. From its very inception, Nandan has been privileged to publish the stories, memoirs, excerpts, biographies and poems of many of the greats from the fields of literature and politics, some of whom are Dr Rajendra Prasad, Indira Gandhi, Gyani Zail Singh, V P Singh, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, A P J Abdul Kalam, Bhartendu Harishchandra, Premchand, Jaishankar Prasad, Bibhuti Bhushan Bandhopadhyaya, Mohan Rakesh, Kamleshwar, Amritlal Nagar, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar, Satyajit Ray, Bhishm Sahni, Ashapurna Devi, Vishnu Prabhakar, Harivansh Rai Bacchan, Shivani, Rajendra Yadav, Khushwant Singh, Krishna Sobti, Manohar Shyam Joshi, Mannu Bhandari, Mrinal pande, Mridula Garg, Taslima Nasrin, Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, Ramesh Dutt Sharma and Kuldeep Sharma. Nandan has published more than ten thousand stories, three thousand poems, and thousands of other creative pieces during these 40 years. It includes more than 400 world classics for children. Nandan has been conducting story-writing, painting, poetry and crossword contests regularly, which has encouraged lot of interest among children and helped to develop their creativity. Nandan gets more than 5000 responses monthly from all over India and abroad, which is in itself a record. Mint: A Business Daily From HT The purpose behind mint was the robust growth of the Indian economy as is evident in the growing stock market. This long-term segment growth opened up an opportunity for a high quality daily newspaper. Although the business newspaper market was mainly dominated by economic times however there was a huge untapped potential for a high quality daily. And this is where HT, in collaboration with the Wall Street Journal, came out with HT Mint. Our Promise International style Clarity : News to knowledge, knowledge to understanding Business of life Wall street Edge & world class editorial Exclusive column partnersÃ¢â¬ ¦KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s/Wharton/Jack Welch [pic] . ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF HT MEDIA LIMITED DELHI [pic] Product profile of mint Mint: A paper that delivers refreshing clarity in business news. a unique inviting and uncluttered layout ensures that you reach the right audience in right environment. Powerful Lineage Regarding Mint 1} The Wall Street Journal: In India Mint is the business daily launched by HT Media Ltd. With the collaboration of the Wall Street Journal which is the most authoritative business daily in the world of newspaper for over 100 year. It is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest and most respected business news platform Features of Mint 1} Available for six days a week gives you clear ,relevant and well analyzed Indian as well as international business news . 2} Quick Scan Ã¢â¬â Act as summary of the key stories of the day with the index of company and people 3} Leading the News Ã¢â¬â A detailed perspective on key news and policy decision affecting business. } Corporate News Ã¢â¬â Financial results mergers acquisitions and everything that buzzing around the corporate corridors. 5} Economy and Politics: Targeted at decision makers, policies and politics that impact business. 6} Market and Media: Best to know latest on consumer behaviors and trends, innovation in media space. 7} On Advertising: Must read for Advertising and market professionals 8} Commodities: Pictorially depicts impact of weather on 4 major commodities of the day. 9} Management: Carries a legal column by AZB and partners, advocates and solicitors, fortnightly column on career. 10} Venture Capital: Get to know the latest venture capital action also get latest on private equity deals with Thomson financial deal counter. 1} The Wall Street Journal: Global news from the largest business publication in the world. 12} Money Matters: Summary of Market & Financial news from India & world plus news and column explaining market movement. 13} 2 pages of views that gives us a complete perspective on issues that matter. Mint on Saturdays A} Last Week . Next Week : Update on what happened last week and what will make difference in the coming week. B} Lounge : Read exclusive columns by Vir Sanghvi and Shoba Narayan and all about bookÃ¢â¬â¢s , trends , travel and technology , paintin g and health and every Saturday columns by Jared Sandberg . style pursuits , insider play ,business lounge ,cover ,travel ,books, flavors. C} Mint Market Watch : Pull out from Tuesday to Saturday with the largest listing of mutual fund in business daily. On Monday mint have campaign on strategy , marketing advertising and management and column by Jack and Suzy Welch. Articles from Kellog , Oxford and Wharton . Readership and Circulation Profile of Mint. Second largest business daily in Delhi and Mumbai on readership basis . On an average Mint have Circulation of 100000 copies per day in Delhi, Mumbai , Bangalore , Chandigarh and Pune. The Mint have exclusively its presence in all major airlines, airports and 5 star hotels in Mumbai , Delhi and all premium clubs, restaurants etc. Mint as an ideal platform for advertising : Benefits that an advertiser could derive from advertising there product in Mint are . A} Reaches the right target audience. B} The Berliner format and clean layout ensures that advertisement is get noticed in more better way. C} Innovative and flexible advertising options. Types of advertisement in Mint are. a. Corporate Advertisement. b. Lifestyle Brands . c. Airlines d. Mint is a great hit between consumer durables . e. A hit among the real estate and infrastructure advertisers. f. Hit in automobile industry. g. And also acts as a leading platform for financial announcements. TITLE OF THE PROJECT THE STUDY OF CHANGE IN COMSUMER PREFERENCE DUE TO PROMOTIONAL STRETAGIES FOR ENGLISH NEWS PAPER IN SOUTH DELHI WITH PREFERENCE TO HINDUSTAN TIMES RATIONALE OF STUDY ? To RESEARCH PLAN Source of Data : Primary data, Secondary data Research Approach: Survey Research Instrument: Questionnaire RESEARCH OBJECTIVE ? To know about the consumers of mint. ? To know about what influence a customer and what way they select a particular business newspaper. ? To study current market scenario of mint. ? To know there competitors and key challenges. ? To know about preferences of costumer. Research Design Research design is different from the method by which data are collected. Many research methods texts confuse research designs with methods. It is not uncommon to see research design treated as a mode of data collection rather than as a logical structure of the inquiry. But there is nothing intrinsic about any research design that requires a particular method of data collection. Although cross-sectional surveys are frequently equated with questionnaires and case studies are often equated with participant observation (e. g. Whyte's Street Corner Society, 1943), data for any design can be collected with any data collection method (Figure 1. 5). How the data are collected is irrelevant to the logic of the design. Failing to distinguish between design and method leads to poor evaluation of designs. Equating cross-sectional designs with questionnaires, or case studies with participant observation, means that the designs are often evaluated against the strengths and weaknesses of the method rather than their ability to draw relatively unambiguous conclusions or to select between rival plausible hypotheses. Types Of Research Design Descriptive research Although some people dismiss descriptive research as `mere description', good description is fundamental to the research enterprise and it has added immeasurably to our knowledge of the shape and nature of our society. Descriptive research encompasses much government sponsored research including the population census, the collection of a wide range of social indicators and economic information such as household expenditure patterns, time use studies, employment and crime statistics and the like. Descriptions can be concrete or abstract. A relatively concrete description might describe the ethnic mix of a community, the changing age proÃ ®le of a population or the gender mix of a workplace. Alternatively the description might ask more abstract questions such as `Is the level of social inequality increasing or declining? Ã¢â¬Ë, `How secular is society? Ã¢â¬Ë or `How much poverty is there in this community? Ã¢â¬Ë Accurate descriptions of the level of unemployment or poverty have historically played a key role in social policy reforms (Marsh, 1982). By demonstrating the existence of social problems, competent description can challenge accepted assumptions about the way things are and can provoke action. Good description provokes the `why' questions of explanatory research. If we detect greater social polarization over the last 20 years (i. e. the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer) we are forced to ask `Why is this happening? Ã¢â¬Ë But before asking `why? Ã¢â¬Ë we must be sure about the fact and dimensions of the phenomenon of increasing polarization. It is all very well to develop elaborate theories as to why society might be more polarized now than in the recent past, but if the basic premise is wrong (i. e. ociety is not becoming more polarized) then attempts to explain a non-existent phenomenon are silly. Of course description can degenerate to mindless fact gathering or what C. W. Mills (1959) called `abstracted empiricism'. There are plenty of examples of unfocused surveys and case studies that rep ort trivial information and fail to provoke any `why' questions or provide any basis for generalization. However, this is a function of inconsequential descriptions rather than an indictment of descriptive research itself. Explanatory research Explanatory research focuses on why questions. For example, it is one thing to describe the crime rate in a country, to examine trends over time or to compare the rates in different countries. It is quite a different thing to develop explanations about why the crime rate is as high as it is, why some types of crime are increasing or why the rate is higher in some countries than in others. The way in which researchers develop research designs is fundamentally affected by whether the research question is descriptive or explanatory. It affects what information is collected. For example, if we want to explain why some people are more likely to be apprehended and convicted of crimes we need to have hunches about why this is so. We may have many possibly incompatible hunches and will need to collect information that enables us to see which hunches work best empirically. Answering the `why' questions involves developing causal explanations. Causal explanations argue that phenomenon Y (e. g. income level) is affected by factor X (e. g. gender). Some causal explanations will be simple while others will be more complex. For example, we might argue that there is a direct effect of gender on income (i. e. simple gender discrimination) (Figure 1. 1a). We might argue for a causal chain, such as that gender affects choice of eld of training which in turn affects. Causal People often confuse correlation with causation. Simply because one event follows another, or two factors co-vary, does not mean that one causes the other. The link between two events may be coincidental rather than causal. There is a correlation between the number of Ã ®re engines at a Ã ®re and the amount of damage caused by the Ã ®re (the more Ã ®re engines the more damage). Is it therefore reasonable to conclude that the number of Ã ®re engines causes the amount of damage? Clearly the number of Ã ®re engines and the amount of damage will both be due to some third factor Ã ± such as the seriousness of the Ã ®re. Similarly, as the divorce rate changed over the twentieth century the crime rate increased a few years later. But this does not mean that divorce causes crime. Rather than divorce causing crime, divorce and crime rates might both be due to other social processes such as secularization, greater individualism or poverty. Why to select Descriptive Research Design? Descriptive studies are also called observational, because you observe the subjects without otherwise intervening. The simplest descriptive study is a case, which reports data on only one subject; examples are studies of an outstanding athlete or of an athlete with an unusual injury. Descriptive studies of a few cases are called case series. In cross-sectional studies variables of interest in a sample of subjects are assayed once and analyzed. In prospective or cohort studies, some variables are assayed at the start of a study (e. g. dietary habits), then after a period of time the outcomes are determined (e. g. incidence of heart disease). Another label for this kind of study is longitudinal, although this term also applies to experiments. Case-control studies compare cases (subjects with a particular attribute, such as an injury or ability) with controls (subjects without the attribute); comparison is made of the exposure to something suspected of causing the cases, for example volume of high intensity training, or number of cigarettes smoked per day. Case-control studies are also called retrospective, because they focus on conditions in the past that might cause subjects to become cases rather than controls. A common case-control design in the exercise science literature is a comparison of the behavioral, psychological or anthropometric characteristics of elite and sub-elite athletes: you are interested in what the elite athletes have been exposed to that makes them better than the sub-elites. Another type of study compares athletes with sedentary people on some outcome such as an injury, disease, or disease risk factor. Here you know the difference in exposure (training vs no training), so these studies are really cohort or prospective, even though the exposure data are gathered retrospectively at only one time point. They are therefore known as historical cohort studies. We are working in a very wide area so we need to observe the facts in their actual condition, so we are using Descriptive Research. Sampling You almost always have to work with a sample of subjects rather than the full population. But people are interested in the population, not your sample. To generalize from the sample to the population, the sample has to be representative of the population. The safest way to ensure that it is representative is to use a random selection procedure. You can also use a stratified random sampling procedure, to make sure that you have proportional representation of population subgroups (e. g. sexes, races, regions). Selection bias occurs when the sample is not representative of the population. More accurately, a sample statistic is biased if the expected value of the statistic is not equal to the value of the population statistic. (The expected value is the average value from many samples drawn using the same sampling method. A typical source of bias in population studies is age or socioeconomic status: people with extreme values for these variables tend not to take part in the studies. Thus a high compliance (the proportion of people approached who end up as subjects) is important in avoiding bias. Journal editors are usually happy with co mpliance rates of at least 70%. Failure to randomize subjects to control and treatment groups in experiments can also produce bias: if you let people select themselves into the groups, or if you select the groups in any way that makes one group different from another, then any result you get might reflect the group difference rather than an effect of the treatment. For this reason, it's important to randomly assign subjects in a way that ensures the groups are balanced in terms of important variables that could modify the effect of the treatment (e. g. age, gender, physical performance). Randomize subjects to groups as follows: rank-order the subjects on the basis of the variable you most want to keep balanced (e. g. physical performance); split the list up into pairs (or triplets for three treatments, etc. ); assign subjects in each pair to the treatments by flipping a coin; check the mean values of your other variables in the two groups, and reassign randomly chosen pairs to balance up these mean values. Human subjects may not be happy about being randomized, so you need to state clearly that it is a condition of taking part. Types Of Sampling Random sampling Random, or probability sampling, gives each member of the target population a known and equal probability of selection. The two basic procedures are: 1 the lottery method, e. g. picking numbers out of a hat or bag 2 the use of a table of random numbers. Systematic sampling Systematic sampling is a modification of random sampling. To arrive at a systematic sample we simply calculate the desired sampling fraction, e. g. if there are 100 distributors of a particular product in which we are interested and our budget allows us to sample say 20 of them then we divide 100 by 20 and get the sampling fraction 5. Thereafter we go through our sampling frame selecting every 5th distributor. In the purest sense this does not give rise to a true random sample since some systematic arrangement is used in listing and not every distributor has a chance of being selected once the sampling fraction is calculated. However, because there is no conscious control of precisely which distributors are selected, all but the most pedantic of practitioners would treat a systematic sample as though it were a true random sample. Systematic sampling as applied to a survey of retailers |Systematic sampling | |Population = 100 Food Stores | |Sample desired = 20 Food Stores | |a. Draw a random number 1-5. | |b. Sample every Xth store. | |Sample |Numbered Stores | |1 |1, |6, |11, |16, |21Ã¢â¬ ¦ |96 | |2 |2 |7, |12 |17, |22Ã¢â¬ ¦ |97 | 3 |3, |8, |13 |18, |23Ã¢â¬ ¦ |98 | |4 |4, |9, |14 |19, |24Ã¢â¬ ¦ |99 | |5 |5, |10, |15, |20, |25Ã¢â¬ ¦ |100 | Stratified samples Stratification increases precision without increasing sample size. Stratification does not imply any departure from the principle s of randomness it merely denotes that before any selection takes place, the population is divided into a number of strata, then random samples taken within each stratum. It is only possible to do this if the distribution of the population with respect to a particular factor is known, and if it is also known to which stratum each member of the population belongs. Examples of characteristics which could be used in marketing to stratify a population include: income, age, sex, race, geographical region, possession of a particular commodity. Stratification can occur after selection of individuals, e. g. if one wanted to stratify a sample of individuals in a town by age, one could easily get figures of the age distribution, but if there is no general population list showing the age distribution, prior stratification would not be possible. What might have to be done in this case at the analysis stage is to correct proportional representation. Weighting can easily destroy the assumptions one is able to make when interpreting data gathered from a random sample and so stratification prior to selection is advisable. Random stratified sampling is more precise and more convenient than simple random sampling. When stratified sampling designs are to be employed, there are 3 key questions which have to be immediately addressed: 1 The bases of stratification, i. e. what characteristics should be used to subdivide the universe/population into strata? 2 The number of strata, i. e. how many strata should be constructed and what stratum boundaries should be used? 3 Sample sizes within strata, i. e. how many observations should be taken in each stratum? Bases of stratification Intuitively, it seems clear that the best basis would be the frequency distribution of the principal variable being studied. For example, in a study of coffee consumption we may believe that behavioural patterns will vary according to whether a particular respondent drinks a lot of coffee, only a moderate amount of coffee or drinks coffee very occasionally. Thus we may consider that to stratify according to Ã¢â¬Å"heavy usersÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"moderate usersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"light usersÃ¢â¬ would provide an optimum stratification. However, two difficulties may arise in attempting to proceed in this way. First, there is usually interest in many variables, not just one, and stratification on the basis of one may not provide the best stratification for the others. Secondly, even if one survey variable is of primary importance, current data on its frequency is unlikely to be available. However, the latter complaint can be attended to since it is possible to stratify after the data has been completed and before the analysis is undertaken. The only approach is to create strata on the basis of variables, for which information is, or can be made available, that are believed to be highly correlated with the principal survey characteristics of interest, e. g. age, socio-economic group, sex, farm size, firm size, etc. In general, it is desirable to make up strata in such a way that the sampling units within strata are as similar as possible. In this way a relatively limited sample within each stratum will provide a generally precise estimate of the mean of that stratum. Similarly it is important to maximise differences in stratum means for the key survey variables of interest. This is desirable since stratification has the effect of removing differences between stratum means from the sampling error. Total variance within a population has two types of natural variation: between-strata variance and within-strata variance. Stratification removes the second type of variance from the calculation of the standard error. Suppose, for example, we stratified students in a particular university by subject speciality Ã¢â¬â marketing, engineering, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, history, geography etc. and questioned them about the distinctions between training and education. The theory goes that without stratification we would expect variation in the views expressed by students from say within the marketing speciality and between the views of marketing students, as a whole, and engineering students as a whole. Stratification ensures that variation between strata does not enter into the standard error by taking account of this source in drawing the sample. Number of strata The next question is that of the number of strata and the construction of stratum boundaries. As regards number of strata, as many as possible should be used. If each stratum could be made as homogeneous as possible, its mean could be estimated with high reliability and, in turn, the population mean could be estimated with high precision. However, some practical problems limit the desirability of a large number of strata: 1 No stratification scheme will completely Ã¢â¬Å"explainÃ¢â¬ the variability among a set of observations. Past a certain point, the Ã¢â¬Å"residualÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"unexplainedÃ¢â¬ variation will dominate, and little improvement will be effected by creating more strata. 2 Depending on the costs of stratification, a point may be reached quickly where creation of additional strata is economically unproductive. If a single overall estimate is to be made (e. g. the average per capita consumption of coffee) we would normally use no more than about 6 strata. If estimates are required for population subgroups (e. g. by region and/or age group), then more strata may be justified. Sample sizes within strata Proportional allocation: Once strata have been established, the question becomes, Ã¢â¬Å"How big a sample must be drawn from each? Ã¢â¬ Consider a situation where a survey of a two-stratum population is to be carried out: |Stratum |Number of Items in Stratum | |A |10,000 | |B |90,000 | If the budget is fixed at $3000 and we know the cost per observation is $6 in each stratum, so the available total sample size is 500. The most common approach would be to sample the same proportion of items in each stratum. This is termed proportional allocation. In this example, the overall sampling fraction is: [pic] Thus, this method of allocation would result in: Stratum A (10,000 ? 0. 5%) = 50 Stratum B (90,000 ? 0. 5%) = 450 The major practical advantage of proportional allocation is that it leads to estimates which are computationally simple. Where proportional sampling has been employed we do not need to weight the means of the individual stratum when calculating the overall mean. So: [pic]sr = W1[pic]1 + W2 [pic]2 + W3 [pic]3+ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Wk [pic]k Optimum allocation: Proportional allocation is advisable when all we know of the strata is their sizes. In situations where the standard deviations of the strata are known it may be advantageous to make a disproportionate allocation. Suppose that, once again, we had stratum A and stratum B, but we know that the individuals assigned to stratum A were more varied with respect to their opinions than those assigned to stratum B. Optimum allocation minimises the standard error of the estimated mean by ensuring that more respondents are assigned to the stratum within which there is greatest variation. Quota sampling Quota sampling is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is non-random. Selection is normally left to the discretion of the interviewer and it is this characteristic which destroys any pretensions towards randomness. Quota v random sampling The advantages and disadvantages of quota versus probability samples has been a subject of controversy for many years. Some practitioners hold the quota sample method to be so unreliable and prone to bias as to be almost worthless. Others think that although it is clearly less sound theoretically than probability sampling, it can be used safely in certain circumstances. Still others believe that with adequate safeguards quota sampling can be made highly reliable and that the extra cost of probability sampling is not worthwhile. Generally, statisticians criticise the method for its theoretical weakness while market researchers defend it for its cheapness and administrative convenience. Main arguments against: Quota sampling It is not possible to estimate sampling errors with quota sampling because of the absence of randomness. Some people argue that sampling errors are so small compared with all the other errors and biases that enter into a survey that not being able to estimate is no great disadvantage. One does not have the security, though, of being able to measure and control these errors. 2 The interviewer may fail to secure a representative sample of respondents in quota sampling. For example, are those in the over 65 age group spread over all the age range or clustered around 65 and 66? 3 Social class controls leave a lot to the interviewer's judgement. 4 Strict control of fieldwork is more difficult, i. e. id interviewers place respondents in groups where cases are needed rather than in those to which they belong. Main arguments for: quota sampling 1 Quota sampling is less costly. A quota interview on average costs only half or a third as much as a random interview, but we must remember that precision is lost. 2 It is easy administratively. The labour of random selection is avoided, and so are the headaches of non-contact and callbacks. 3 If fieldwork has to be done quickly, perhaps to reduce memory errors, quota sampling may be the only possibility, e. g. to obtain immediate public reaction to some event. 4. Quota sampling is independent of the existence of sampling frames. Cluster and multistage sampling Cluster sampling: The process of sampling complete groups or units is called cluster sampling, situations where there is any sub-sampling within the clusters chosen at the first stage are covered by the term multistage sampling. For example, suppose that a survey is to be done in a large town and that the unit of inquiry (i. e. the unit from which data are to be gathered) is the individual household. Suppose further that the town contains 20,000 households, all of them listed on convenient records, and that a sample of 200 households is to be selected. One approach would be to pick the 200 by some random method. However, this would spread the sample over the whole town, with consequent high fieldwork costs and much inconvenience. (All the more so if the survey were to be conducted in rural areas, especially in developing countries where rural areas are sparsely populated and access difficult). One might decide therefore to concentrate the sample in a few parts of the town and it may be assumed for simplicity that the town is divided into 400 areas with 50 households in each. A simple course would be to select say 4 areas at random (i. e. 1 in 100) and include all the households within these areas in our sample. The overall probability of selection is unchanged, but by selecting clusters of households, one has materially simplified and made cheaper the fieldwork. A large number of small clusters is better, all other things being equal, than a small number of large clusters. Whether single stage cluster sampling proves to be as statistically efficient as a simple random sampling depends upon the degree of homogeneity within clusters. If respondents within clusters are homogeneous with respect to such things as income, socio-economic class etc. , they do not fully represent the population and will, therefore, provide larger standard errors. On the other hand, the lower cost of cluster sampling often outweighs the disadvantages of statistical inefficiency. In short, cluster sampling tends to offer greater reliability for a given cost rather than greater reliability for a given sample size. Multistage sampling The population is regarded as being composed of a number of first stage or primary sampling units (PSU's) each of them being made up of a number of second stage units in each selected PSU and so the procedure continues down to the final sampling unit, with the sampling ideally being random at each stage. The necessity of multistage sampling is easily established. PSU's for national surveys are often administrative districts, urban districts or parliamentary constituencies. Within the selected PSU one may go direct to the final sampling units, such as individuals, households or addresses, in which case we have a two-stage sample. It would be more usual to introduce intermediate sampling stages, i. e. administrative districts are sub-divided into wards, then polling districts. Area sampling Area sampling is basically multistage sampling in which maps, rather than lists or registers, serve as the sampling frame. This is the main method of sampling in developing countries where adequate population lists are rare. The area to be covered is divided into a number of smaller sub-areas from which a sample is selected at random within these areas; either a complete enumeration is taken or a further sub-sample. Aerial sampling [pic] A grid, such as that shown above, is drawn and superimposed on a map of the area of concern. Sampling points are selected on the basis of numbers drawn at random that equate to the numbered columns and rows of the grid. If the area is large, it can be subdivided into sub-areas and a grid overlayed on these. Figure 7. 4 depicts the procedures involved. As in figure 7. 3 the columns and rows are given numbers. Then, each square in the grid is allocated numbers to define grid lines. Using random numbers, sampling points are chosen within each square. Figure 7. 4 gives an impression of the pattern of sampling which emerges. Why to select Area Sampling? Since it is generally impossible to study an entire population (every individual in a country, all college students, every geographic area, etc. ), researchers typically rely on sampling to acquire a section of the population to perform an experiment or observational study. It is important that the group selected be representative of the population, and not biased in a systematic manner. For this reason, randomization is typically employed to achieve an unbiased sample. There may often be factors which divide up the population into sub-populations (groups / strata) and we may expect the measurement of interest to vary among the different sub-populations. This has to be accounted for when we select a sample from the population in order that we obtain a sample that is representative of the population. This is achieved by stratified sampling. A stratified sample is obtained by taking samples from each stratum or sub-group of a population. When we sample a population with several strata, we generally require that the proportion of each stratum in the sample should be the same as in the population. Stratified sampling techniques are generally used when the population is heterogeneous, or dissimilar, where certain homogeneous, or similar, sub-populations can be isolated (strata). Simple random sampling is most appropriate when the entire population from which the sample is taken is homogeneous. Some reasons for using stratified sampling over simple random sampling are: a) the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced; b) estimates of the population parameters may be wanted for each sub-population; c) increased accuracy at given cost. . Research Findings Q. 1. Do you read Newspaper? a) Yes (b) No Number of people reading news paper. [pic] Q. 2. Which newspaper do you read? (a) Yes (b)No [pic] APPENDICES Questionnaire 1) Do you read Newspaper? (a) Yes (b) No 2) Which newspaper do you read? (a) Yes (b)No 3) Which bu siness newspaper do you read? (a) MINT (b) ET (c) Business Express (d) Others i. SpecifyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 4) Please rate the Mint, ET and other on the basis of 1 to 5 scale a. MINT ET Other (specify)Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ b. QualityÃ¢â¬ ¦.. 9, a) QualityÃ¢â¬ ¦.. 9, a) QualityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ c. Price Ã¢â¬ ¦.. , b) Price Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 9, b) Price Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. d. Service Ã¢â¬ ¦. 8, c) ServiceÃ¢â¬ ¦. 8, c) ServiceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ e. Offer Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 9, d) Offer Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 7, d) Offer Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 5) Which type of news do you like most in the newspaper? (a) Political News (b) Business News (c) Page 3 (d) Others 6) Do you like the Promotional programs? (a)Yes (b)No 7) Which promotional program attracts you more? a) Related to monetary terms b) Giving more attention for changing quality of news according to you 8) Do you ever taken any newspaper by promotional offers? (a)Yes (b)No 9) Which promotional offer do you like most? a)Short term (b)Long term 10) Have you ever trie d a new newspaper due to promotional offer? (a)Yes (b)No 11) Does offer giving newspapers satisfies your news needs? (a)Yes (b)No 12) Would you like to continue the newspaper without offer? (a)Yes (b)No (c)Looking for further offers Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â RESIDENT EDITOR BHAGALPUR RESIDENT EDITOR VARANASI RESIDENT EDITOR RANCHI RESIDENT EDITOR PATNA RESIDENT EDITOR LUCKNOW EXECUTIVE EDITOR KADAMBINI EXECUTIVE EDITOR NANDAN RESIDENT EDITOR HINDUSTAN DELHI V. P. -LEGAL, TAX & CO. SECRETARY BUSINESS HEAD -SOUTH AND WESST CHIEF MARKETING OFFICER BUSINESS HEAD-NORTH & STRATEGIC MARKETING BUSINESS HEAD, BUSINESS PAPER HEAD BUSINESS EXCELENCE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER CHIEF EDITOR BUSINESS PAPER HEAD RADIO HEAD-KEY MARKETING SOLUTION & EVENT HEAD INTERNET BUSINESS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OPERATION & HUMAN RESOURCE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR MEDIA MARKETING & CIRCULATION GROUP EDITOR HINDUSTAN ADVISORY EDITORIAL DIRECTOR MANAGING EDITOR, HINDUSTAN TIMES CEO HT MEDIA LTD. VICE CHAIRPERSON & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR 125 Metro now JV with BCCL Delhi Mumbai Bangalore Kolkata Leadership Luxury Others Delhi Mumbai Bangalore Bihar Jharkhand UP Delhi Punjab Uttranchal Mumbai Chandigarh Bhopal Jalandar Varanasi Mujafarpur Bhagalpur Kanpur Dehradoon Noida Banglore Lucknow Patna Ranchi Kolkata Hindustanimes. com Hindustan. com HTCricket. com Livemint. com Shine. com Radio (Virgin) Events Mint (WSJ) Hindustan Hindustan Times Internet Print HT Media SR. EXECUTIVE (CENTER WISE) SR. EXECUTIVE (CENTER WISE) SR. EXECUTIVE (CENTER WISE) SR. EXECUTIVE (CENTER WISE) ASSISTANT MANAGER ASSISTANT MANAGER DEPUTY MANAGER AREA WISE CATEGORY WISE REPORTERS SUB- EDITOR CHIEF-EDITOR LOGISTICS WORKERS ASSISTANT MANAGER CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT MANAGER SALES SUBSCRIPTION DEPARTMENT PRODUCTION MANAGER EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT MEDIA MARKETING D G M SALES BUSINESS HEAD NORTH
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Forrest Gump as the Modern Day Fairytale Forrest Gump is a classic film; this essay will explore all aspects if this favourite. From the beautifully naÃ ¯ve Forrest, to the political underlay throughout the narrative. The opening sequence of the film stimulates a distant memory, a reminiscence of fairytales from years gone by. Once getting to know the character of Forrest I realize this innocence of fairytales is reflected in his being. The tinkling keys of the piano sets the atmosphere for the rest of the film; magical. We see a feather floating on a breeze. A signifier is a symbol, it can be verbal (seen) or aural (heard). It is a symbol that the audience can place a significant meaningÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The opening sequence links with many of the major themes, which are raised throughout the film. We see a woman run across the road, this to me is symbolic of Jennys character; always running away in her life, never staying to face her problems. The film is so popular because people can relate to the characters, we all want to run away in our lives, jenny lives this nightmare. The woman then dodges a car, this sign of danger represents the danger Jenny inflicted upon herself, pushing her body to the limit, and causing her to contemplate suicide. In the background behind Forrest there is war memorial, this is significant because Forrest fought in the Vietnam War and all of lieutenant Dans ancestors had died in previous wars. The feathers symbolic passage finishes when it falls at Forrests feet. We see his shoes, worn, dirty, ruined. These shoes were a gift from Jenny. The best gift a man could ever get Despite all his riches Forrest chose to keep the trainers he had, he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t superficial and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t spawn in greed. Sentimental value meant more to him, a bond with Jenny when she was not there for him. Forrest chooses to pick up the feather, why? Did he see the same meaning in it as a metaphor of destiny, a metaphor for his life? He put the feather into his case. This case depicts Forrests entire life, it contains all the significant things whichShow MoreRelatedIntroduction : How ve He Do That?10829 Words Ã |Ã 44 Pagesfact that she exploits these boys who are sent to this camp to get Ã¢â¬Å"straightened upÃ¢â¬ because of their mistakes, but instead theyÃ¢â¬â¢re practically forced to dig holes all day just to obtain their mediocre rations. Chapter 4 -- If ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Square, ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a Sonnet Sonnet #1: Sonnet 18 by William Shakespeare. Shall I compare thee to a summer s day? (A) Thou art more lovely and more temperate: (B) Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, (A) And summer s lease hath all too short a date: (B) Sometime too hot
Friday, December 27, 2019
Taking Down the Confederate Flag The American South. An area full of rich history and the home to some of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s largest conflicts throughout history, such as the civil war and the civil rights movement. Southerners have always been proud of their heritage despite its rocky parts and display it for all to see with a 150 year old flag. This is proving to be problematic, though, as the Confederate flag they are all so proud of, is really only 50 years old and has been associated with ideals of white supremacy and racism. Some Southerners and other Americans choose to not believe the truth about the flag, others were never taught the truth. However, it is incredibly important in forming an opinion on the flag, and to whether or not the flag must be removed from state buildings. And the truth is, due to its historical affiliation to racist whites in the South, white supremacy groups, and recent events such as the Charleston Shooting, the Confederate rebel flag should not be flown on state buildings as it is not culturally sensitive to African American people who have been targeted by these people. The confederate battle flag is much different than the rebel flag that is known today, the battle flag went through three distinct phases and the rebel flag was none of them. The first flag of the Confederate army was adopted in spring of 1861, and it had seven stars to represent the seven states that seceded from the Union. ByShow MoreRelatedTaking Down The Confederate Flag1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1011/Kemp September 9, 2015 FA1 Debate Draft Taking down the Confederate Flag The confederate flag, a topic that has been the center of controversy for many years now, is an emblem of southern pride and heritage to some, while to some it is purely a symbol of hate and racism. After the shootings in South Carolina, it is clear that the flag should be taken down. Since it represents white supremacy and inequality and not Southern pride. The confederate flag, one of the most controversial image of theRead MoreThe Confederate Flag As A Symbol Of American History1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Confederate Flag Recently there has been a big debate over the nation for the flying confederate flag.Is the confederate flag a true symbol of Ã¢â¬Å"Heritage or HateÃ¢â¬ ? Many states in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s south had the confederate flag as a part of their state flag, but this has been changed over the past few months. The confederate flag has been known and flown for many battles over the past century and a half, which was ever since thebeginning of the Civil War in 1861. Some people today see this flag as aRead MoreThe Confederate Flag As A Symbol Of American History1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Confederate Flag Is the confederate flag a true symbol of Ã¢â¬Å"Heritage or HateÃ¢â¬ ? Recently there has been a big debate over the nation for the flying confederate flag. Many states in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s south had the confederate flag as a part of their state flag, but this has been changed over the past few months. This confederate flag has been known and flown for many battles over the past century and a half, which was ever since the start of the Civil War in 1861. Some people today see this flag as a symbolRead MoreConfederate Flag Is America s Swastika1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesConfederate Flag In The Hill, a top U.S. political magazine, in June 2015, Contributor H. A. Goodman wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"The Confederate flag is indeed America s swastika.Ã¢â¬ In the same way the Jewish community sees the swastika as a painful reminder of the Holocaust, the African-American community perceives the flag as a reminder of slavery and racial discrimination. The Confederate flag, a relic of the devastating Civil War, has become one of the most controversial and contentious icons in American historyRead MoreThe Confederate Flag And Its Controversy1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages In my paper I will be discussing the Confederate Flag and its controversy in history and in todays views. The Confederate flag has been a negative symbol in American society since the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. It has been only recently that the Confederate flag has been brought back to life as a contemporary issue. In recent times the flag has been used as a motivation for racial strikes and other rebellious acts bring the issues of the flag and the controversy behind it back to life. The major questions I seek toRead MoreThe Confederate Flag And The Flag1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHeritage By; Stefen Bellucci The Confederate flag started out as this good thing by symbolizing an American history that made us who we are today. The confederate flag was the flag that united the 11 confederate states. The 11 states were South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Kentucky and Missouri. While these 11 states might have been pro-slavery, it was their flag that united them and held them together. But now these days, the flag has been stained and a group ofRead MoreAlabama s Confederate Flag Controversy1089 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAlabamaÃ¢â¬â¢s Confederate Flag Controversy The outlining issue here is the Confederate Flag and its perception amongst the Alabama population. Debating on whether the flag should be taken down in respect to citizen who are offended because of its close relation to the history of slavery in America. The opposing side felt that it is a part of southern/the southÃ¢â¬â¢s history, pride and should be honored. Also, the opposing side feels that with other issues happening in the community; this debate is not somethingRead MoreHistorical Heritage And Regional Identity1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescontinue flying the state flag was put to a vote. The Associated Student Body voted to remove the flag from any and all buildings on campus; the chancellor ultimately decided that the Associated Student Body was right in this decision. The appropriateness of the Confederate flag has become a major point of dispute in this country. In the state of Mississippi, however, the argument is complicated by the fact that the state flag itself inc orporates the Confederate flag into its design. Those whoRead MoreAdvantages Of The Confederate Flag1056 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Confederate Flag Debate in TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Society The confederate flag has always been a symbol that has caused much controversy. It has been called a symbol of pride, also a symbol of hate. Many people wonder why it is still seen in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society or why it causes so much tension if it is just a flag to some. The flag has Ã¢â¬Å"bisected the country for a long timeÃ¢â¬ (Kozlowska, 2014). It is a definite border between some citizens and a huge social problem. It has caused issues for decades and still carriesRead MoreThe Confederate Flag Is A Flag Of Hate1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Is the Confederate flag really a flag of hate? Contrary to popular belief, the Confederate flag does not stand for racism, it stands for freedom. It stands for the men who lost their lives fighting for a doomed country, white and black. It stands for not letting others push you around and control you. I stands for the Ã¢â¬Å"bad sideÃ¢â¬ in the Civil War. It is the proof that despite the fact that we boast about being stubborn, we are ign orant to the fact that all we do is follow the crowd. It represents
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Beauty and attraction is often used to describe oneÃ¢â¬â¢s beloved. In the fifteen hundreds to the sixteen hundreds love was something everyone wrote about. In these pieces of writing each lover is described as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest beauty. Despite the times interest in love the poet William shakespeare wrote Ã¢â¬Å" My MistressÃ¢â¬â¢ Eyes are nothing like the sunÃ¢â¬ . This poem described women in a non traditional manner, forcing people to see women and love in a different perspective. He uses content to drag in the readers attention,structure to effectively organize his poem and finally style to strength his message. By effectively using content,style, and structure he is able to shine light on his main message, which is that love is not based off ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Traditionally, shakespearean sonnets are written in fourteen lines (Fugu 2009), which are divided into 3 quatrains and a rhyming couplet at the end of the poem. The poem is written in an iamb ic pentameter(Fugu 2009) making it a pleasurable poem to read. The rhyming couplet at the end summarizes the main message which makes it easier to understand. A change in tone or in other words volta takes place between the third quatrain right before the rhyming couplet. Ã¢â¬Å"My mistress when she walks treads the ground/as any she belied with false compare.Ã¢â¬â¢(12-14) At this point in the poem the tone changes to the only positive comparison in the whole poem(Dominick 2006). The rhyming couplet at the end gives the true message of the poem which is that his beloved is not perfect but he loves her for who she is and not because of her appearance. The poem also follows a rhyme scheme of ABABCDCDEFEFGG. Which is classic for shakespeare. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s unique form of writing poetry really helps his readers understand and relate to his poetry. Finally, the poem was able to share itÃ¢â¬â¢s main message by using style effectively. Even though the main message of the poem is interesting on its own, the style used to write the poem is just as interesting. In this poem many literary devices are used to help build the theme of the poem. Throughout the poem various different types of smilies are used to compare and contrast the image of the ideal lover to the realistic image of the idealShow MoreRelatedMy Mistress Eyes Are Nothing Like The Sun Analysis1017 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmanda Mabillard in her analysis of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"My MistressÃ¢â¬â¢ Eyes are Nothing Like the Sun,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The ordinary beauty and humanity of his lover are important to Shakespeare in this sonnet.Ã¢â¬ This tells of how the simplicity of his lover creates a new sense of admiration in their relationship and contradicts the canonical ideas of beauty and love at that time. My life and ideals of beauty reflect those of William Shakespeare in his sonnet Ã¢â¬Å"My MistressÃ¢â¬â¢ Eyes are Nothing Like the SunÃ¢â¬ for the reason thatRead MoreMy Mistress Eyes Are Nothing Like The Sun Analysis1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmanda Mabillard in her analysis of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"My MistressÃ¢â¬â¢ Eyes are Nothing Like the Sun,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The ordinary beauty and humanity of his lover are important to Shakespeare in this sonnet.Ã¢â¬ This tells of how the simplicity of his lover creates a new sense of admiration in their relationship and contradicts the canonical ideas of beauty and love at that time. My life and ideals of beauty reflect those of William Shakespeare in his sonnet Ã¢â¬Å"My MistressÃ¢â¬â¢ Eyes are Nothing Like the SunÃ¢â¬ for the reason thatRead MoreAnalysis Of My Mistress Eyes Are Nothing Like The Sun766 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Ã¢â¬Å"My MistressÃ¢â¬â¢ Eyes Are Nothing Like The Sun,Ã¢â¬ poet William Shakespeare describes his love for a woman that throughout the poem he states is nothing special to most but special to him. Shakespeare uses imagery, similes, meta phors, alliteration, and irony to show the reader all love poems do not have to be the same but still profess the love one has for another. The speaker restates the title in the first line of the poem. In line 1, Ã¢â¬Å"My mistressÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes are nothing like the sunÃ¢â¬ (1), the speakerRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem My Mistress Eyes Are Nothing Like The Sun 868 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe title of the poem Ã¢â¬Å"My mistress eyes are nothing like the sunÃ¢â¬ suggests that the speaker is not in love with his Ã¢â¬ËmistressÃ¢â¬â¢. However, this is not the case. Shakespeare uses figurative language by using criticizing hyperboles to mock the traditional love sonnet. Thus, showing not only that the ideal woman is not always a Ã¢â¬ËgoddessÃ¢â¬â¢, but mocking the way others write about love. Shakespeare proves that love can be written about and accomplished without the artificial and exuberant. The speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s toneRead MoreCritical Analysis of Shakespeares Sonnet 1301111 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCritical analysis of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Sonnet 130 ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Sonnet 130 compares the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s lover to a number of other beautiesÃ¢â¬âand never in the loverÃ¢â¬â¢s favor. Her eyes are Ã¢â¬Å"nothing like the sun,Ã¢â¬ her lips are less red than coral; compared to white snow, her breasts are dun-colored, and her hairs are like black wires on her head. In the second quatrain, the speaker says he has seen roses separated by color (Ã¢â¬Å"damaskedÃ¢â¬ ) into red and white, but he sees no such roses in his mistressÃ¢â¬â¢s cheeks; andRead MoreComparing Modern And Traditional Poems1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessocial and cultural contexts, an independent analysis is quite possible. It is in this context that a deep textual analysis of the formal features of the poems becomes significant. A formal analysis can be done for any poem of any style, modern or traditional. The modern poems such as Theme for English B by Langston Hughes and Ã¢â¬Å"The FishÃ¢â¬ by Elizabeth Bishop can be compared with traditional poems such as ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"My mistress eyes are nothing like the sunÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Ode on MelancholyÃ¢â¬ by John KeatsRead MoreSonnet 130 Analysis938 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSonnet Analysis-Sonnet 130 by William Shakespeare I will be writing about Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 130Ã¢â¬ that was written in 1609 by William Shakespeare. The theme of this sonnet is romance, but it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the conventional love poem were you praise your mistress and point out to the readers all the ways in which she is perfect and the best. In this sonnet we could see that beauty isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a rush when you talk about love and how does Shakespeare compares her mistress appearance to things which she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t, this means herRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Sonnet 130887 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesclose analysis of the language and imagery that Shakespeare uses it shows that even with the harsh comparisons, he truly loves his mistress and that its better to express the truth rather than exaggeration of the truth. The first quatrain opens with the speaker expresses how his mistresses might not be attractive to many or even himself . He uses the aspects of nature to compare to her beauty and also compares her beauty to the modern female of that era. Ã¢â¬Å"My mistressÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes are nothing like the sun;Read MoreLord Byron And William Shakespeare966 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswith the usage of a few words. However, it is sometimes difficult for a reader to comprehend what the poem is trying to imply, but that is the beauty behind poetry which as a reader, one might have a different interpretations from another. In an analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"She walks in beautyÃ¢â¬ by Lord Byron and Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 130Ã¢â¬ by William Shakespeare, they both have a unique distinction on how the words are used to project affections to their respective lover. The linguistic style of the poets diverges in their depictionRead MoreElizabethan Poetry Analysis1292 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshave commonly played the parts of the beloved, the desired, and the dangerous. Throughout my analysis, I will be discussing these different views of women as seen in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 130Ã¢â¬ and his drama, the Twelfth Night, or What You Will. To begin, I want to provide a brief summary of each literary work I will be discussing. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 130Ã¢â¬ is a poem where the speaker describes his mistress and how she does not meet any of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty standards that are common in other love